# 26th E+CRS / 35th RCRC

Asia/Novosibirsk
Altai State University

#### Altai State University

Barnaul, Russia
Description

The 26th  Extended European Cosmic Ray Symposium (E+CRS 2018)  in conjunction with 35th Russian Cosmic Ray Conference (RCRC 2018) will be held at the Altai State University (Barnaul - Belokurikha - Altai Mountains) on July 6 - 10, 2018.

European Cosmic Ray Symposium is an important and large conference in the field of Astroparticle Physics, covering the following main topics: Cosmic Ray Physics, Gamma-Ray Astronomy, Neutrino Astronomy, Dark Matter Physics, Solar and Heliospheric Physics, Astroparticle Physics Theory and Models and Experimental Methods, Techniques and Instrumentation.

In accordance with the decision of the International Advising Committee (IAC), adopted during the 25th ECRS (Turin, 2016), the format of the next extended "E+CRS" event is changed accepting the model of the COSPAR International Scientific Assembly with the aim of expanding the geography of participants, as well as ensuring the participation of key scientific organizations and key world experts in the symposium areas with invited reviews, plenary, oral and poster presentations.

Altai is located in the geographical center of the Eurasia, in the southeast of Western Siberia and it is a famous natural UNESCO World Heritage Site, one of the worlds most valuable areas of biological diversity, historical and cultural heritage and ecological tourism.

Belokurikha - the main spa resort of the Altai - is successfully op­erating Siberian center of congress tourism. Dozens of con­ferences, symposiums, exhibitions, meetings, seminars, etc. are annually held here. In the active use are here the tech­niques of treatment based on local natural material: honey, herbs, therapeutic muds, live‑stock products. Much atten­tion is paid to short‑term treatment programs that are in de­mand among socially active business people. All con­ditions are created here for treatment, health‑improving and recreation activities.

The members of the local organizing committee are very proud to be hosting the joint conference and look forward to welcoming you to Barnaul, Belokurikha and Altai Mountains. You will experience something totally unforgettable, something that will make you fall in love with Altai and make you come back here again and again.

Important Dates

• 20th Dec 2017. Opening of registration
• 8th Mar 2018.  Deadline for Abstract Submission
• 13th Mar 2018.  Deadline for Early Registration Payment
• 17th Apr 2018. Abstract acceptance.  Notification to authors for presentations and Announcement of Preliminary program
• 13th June 2018. Deadline for Midterm Registration Payment
• 6th Jul 2018. Start of the conference. On-site Registration Payment
• 10th Jul 2018. End of the conference
• 14th Oct 2018.  Deadline for Proceedings Submission

Participants
• Abdullrahman Maghrabi
• Agnieszka Gil
• Agnieszka Leszczyńska
• Agnur Beisenova
• Aidana Almenova
• Akeo Misaki
• Aleksandar Mishev
• Aleksandr Kurganov
• Aleksei Germanenko
• Alexander Borisov
• Alexander Karelin
• Alexander Lidvansky
• Alexander Maslov
• Alexander Moiseev
• Alexander Panov
• Alexander Shepetov
• Alexander Skurihin
• Alexander Tyumentsev
• Alexei Struminsky
• Alexey Bakaldin
• Alexey Kochanov
• Alexey Yushkov
• Anaid Melkumyan
• Anastasia Seryh
• Anastasia Tezari
• Anatoliy Pan
• Anatoly Erlykin
• Anatoly Lagutin
• Anatoly Petrukhin
• Andreas Haungs
• Andrey Arkhangelskiy
• Andrey Bogomolov
• Andrey Grinyuk
• Andrey Turundaevskiy
• Anna Dmitrieva
• Anna Kovylyaeva
• Anna Lukovnikova
• Anna Morozova
• Anna Uryson
• Anna Wawrzyńczak-Szaban
• Anton Lukyashin
• Antonio Codino
• Artem Abunin
• Artem Sabourov
• Artur Borodin
• Artur Tkachenko
• Atsushi Iyono
• Benoît Revenu
• Björn Eichmann
• Boris Gvozdevsky
• Boris Khrenov
• Brian Rauch
• Carlo Francesco Vigorito
• Carmelo Evoli
• Chung-Ming Ko
• Denis Bastieri
• Dmitriy Kostunin
• Dmitriy Zhurov
• Dmitry Bezbatko
• Dmitry Chernov
• Dmitry Chernyshov
• Dmitry Peregoudov
• DMITRY PODOROZHNY
• Edward Bogomolov
• Egor Podlesnyi
• Ekaterina Yurina
• Elena Bonvech
• Elena Daibog
• Elena Korosteleva
• Eric Mayotte
• Erwin FLUECKIGER
• Eugeny Maurchev
• Eva dos Santos
• Evgeniia Mikhalko
• Evgeniy Kalinin
• Evgeny Postnikov
• Federico Donnini
• Fernando Arqueros
• Galina Bazilevskaya
• GEORGY BASHINDZHAGYAN
• Giuseppe Di Sciascio
• Giuseppe La Vacca
• Grigory Protopopov
• Gulnur Kantay
• Gwenael Giacinti
• Hongbo Hu
• Hrach Torosyan
• hu liu
• Igor Kovalev
• Igor Moskalenko
• Igor Petrov
• Igor Yashin
• ilya kudryashov
• Ilya Lagoida
• Irene Arkhangelskaja
• Irina Dzaparova
• Irina Myagkova
• Irina Shakiryanova
• Irina Troitskaya
• Irina Zayarnaya
• Iurii Egorov
• Ivan Petukhov
• Jiali Liu
• Juan Carlos Díaz Vélez
• Julia Mikhailova
• jutika devi
• Jörg Hörandel
• Karl-Heinz Kampert
• Karol Jędrzejczak
• Karolina Krolik
• Katharina Henjes-Kunst
• Kenji Yoshida
• Kumiko Nobukawa
• Leonid Gurvits
• Leonid Ksenofontov
• Leonid Kuzmichev
• Leonid Tkachev
• Lev Dorman
• Lev Timofeev
• Luke Drury
• Lyubov Sveshnikova
• Makhti Kochkarov
• Makoto Sasaki
• Maksim Sorokovikov
• Marcin Kasztelan
• Marek Siluszyk
• Maria Lavrova
• Mario Bertaina
• Markus Ahlers
• Masahiro Teshima
• Masami Fujii
• Masayuki Naito
• Max Renschler
• Maxim Philippov
• Maxim Pshirkov
• Merlin Kole
• Michael Dobrovolsky
• Michael Kachelriess
• Miguel Orcinha
• Mikhail Amelchakov
• Mikhail Kalinin
• Mikhail Krainev
• Mikhail Panasyuk
• Mikhail Podzolko
• Mikhail Pravdin
• Mikhail Zotov
• MIloslav Slunecka
• Nail Khaerdinov
• Naoya Inoue
• Natalia Agafonova
• Natalia Barbashina
• Natalia Korotkova
• Nataliya Osetrova
• Nicholas Eugene Engelbrecht
• Nicola Tomassetti
• Nikolai Svirzhevsky
• Nikolay Budnev
• Nikolay Topchiev
• Nikolay Volkov
• Nima Lubsandorzhiev
• Nobusuke Takahashi
• Oleg Shchegolev
• Olga Kryakunova
• Olga Voskresenskaya
• Olivier Deligny
• Olivier Martineau
• Paolo Bernardini
• Paolo Desiati
• paolo maestro
• Pavel Bezyazeekov
• Pavel Klimov
• Petr Gololobov
• Pier Simone Marrocchesi
• Piero Spillantini
• Pravata Mohanty
• Rauf Mukhamedshin
• Renat Sibatov
• Renata Modzelewska
• Riccardo Rando
• Rita Novoseltseva
• Roberta Sparvoli
• Roman Krivonos
• Roman Monkhoev
• Roman Raikin
• Roman Sidorov
• Rostislav Kokoulin
• Semyon Khokhlov
• Sergei Sinegovsky
• Sergey Aleksandrin
• Sergey Balaganskiy
• Sergey Koldashov
• Sergey Koldobskiy
• Sergey Osipov
• Sergey Pyatovsky
• Sergey Starodubtsev
• Sergey Voronov
• Shoji Torii
• Songzhan Chen
• Stanislav Knurenko
• Stanislav Matarkin
• Stefan Hackstein
• Stepan Poluianov
• svetlana machavariani
• Svetlana Rodenko
• Svetlana Rogovaya
• Svetlana Veretenenko
• Takeshi Okuda
• Tatiana Marshalkina
• Tatyana Serebryakova
• Temir Zharaspayev
• Timur Dzhatdoev
• Tobias Winchen
• Tomohiro Tanemori
• Valentina Mokhnachevskaya
• Valery Kozlov
• Valery Petkov
• Valery Sdobnov
• Valery Yanchukovsky
• Vasiliy Khomyakov
• Vasiliy Kuzmenko
• Vasily Prosin
• Veronique Van Elewyck
• Victor Getmanov
• Victor Manuel Velasco Herrera
• Victor Okhlopkov
• Victor Pavlyuchenko
• Victor Yanke
• Viktoriya Oleneva
• Vitali Choutko
• Vitaly Malakhov
• Vsevolod Ashikhmin
• Weiwei Xu
• Yana Zhezher
• Yana Zhezher
• Yaroslav Sagan
• Yernar Tautayev
• Yi Zhang
• Yoichi Asaoka
• Yordan Tassev
• Yosui Akaike
• Yuri Stenkin
• Yuri Stozhkov
• Yurij Ochelkov
• Yury Balabin
• Yury Uvarov
• Zbigniew Plebaniak
• Zbigniew Wlodarczyk
• Zigfried Hampel-Arias
Contact
• Friday, 6 July
• 08:00 10:00
Registration Altai State University, Dimitrova street, 66 (Altai State University, Dimitrova street, 66)

### Altai State University, Dimitrova street, 66

#### Altai State University, Dimitrova street, 66

Altai State University, Dimitrova street, 66
• 10:00 11:00
Opening Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

• 11:00 11:30
Coffee-Break + Press 30m
• 11:30 12:30
Plenary Session: Plenary Session #1 Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

• 11:30
Cosmic ray energy spectrum and composition between the knee and the ankle 30m

Investigations of the energy spectrum as well as the mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range of PeV to EeV are important for understanding both, the origin of the galactic and the extragalactic cosmic rays. The multi-detector arrangement of KASCADE and its extension KASCADE-Grande was designed for observations of cosmic ray air showers in this energy range. Most important result from KASCADE is the proof that the knee feature at several PeV is due to a decrease in the flux of light atomic nuclei of primary cosmic rays. Recent results of KASCADE-Grande have now shown two more spectral features: a knee-like structure in the spectrum of heavy primaries at around 90 PeV and a hardening of the spectrum of light primaries at energies just above 100 PeV. These features are meanwhile confirmed by other experiments like Tunka, IceCube/IceTop, TALE and others. In this talk the present results on energy spectrum and composition are compared to each other and with astrophysical models for the energy range, where the transition from galactic to extragalactic origin of cosmic rays are expected. In addition, the effects of using different hadronic interaction models for interpreting the measured air-shower data will be discussed.

Speaker: Andreas Haungs (KIT - Germany)
• 12:00
The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) on the International Space Station 30m

The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) space experiment, which has been developed by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, is a high-energy astroparticle physics mission installed on the International Space Station (ISS). The primary goals of the CALET mission include investigating possible nearby sources of high-energy electrons, studying the details of galactic particle propagation and searching for dark matter signatures. During a two-year mission, extendable to five years, the CALET experiment measures the flux of cosmic-ray electrons (including positrons) to 20 TeV, gamma-rays to 10 TeV and nuclei with Z=1 to 40 up to 1,000 TeV. The instrument consists of two layers of segmented plastic scintillators for the cosmic-ray charge identification (CHD), a 3 radiation length thick tungsten-scintillating fiber imaging calorimeter (IMC) and a 27 radiation length thick lead-tungstate calorimeter (TASC). CALET has sufficient depth, imaging capabilities and excellent energy resolution to allow for a clear separation between hadrons and electrons and between charged particles and gamma rays. The instrument was launched on August 19, 2015 to the ISS with HTV-5 (H-II Transfer Vehicle 5) and installed on the Japanese Experiment Module-Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) on August 25 .
Since the start of operation in mid-October, 2015, a continuous observation has being kept mainly by triggering high energy (>10 GeV) showers without any major interruption. The number of the triggered events over 10 GeV is nearly 20 million per month. By using the data obtained during the first two-years, we will have a summary of the CALET observations: 1) Electron+Positron energy spectrum, 2) Proton and Nuclei spectrum, 3) Gamma-ray observation, with results of the performance study on orbit. We also present the results of observations of the electromagnetic counterparts to LIGO-VIRGO gravitational wave events and high-energy counterparts to GRB events measured with the CALET Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (CGBM).

Speaker: Yoichi Asaoka (Waseda University)
• 12:30 14:00
Lunch 1h 30m
• 14:00 16:00
Plenary Session Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

• 14:00
Cosmic Ray Anisotropy with the IceCube Observatory 30m

The IceCube Observatory is a neutrino telescope deployed at the geographic South Pole, aimed to detect and identify high energy neutrinos of astrophysical origin. IceCube is also able to detect cosmic rays with the 1 km^3 neutrino telescope buried 2500 meters under the Antarctic ice and with a dedicated 1 km^2 surface array. IceCube has analyzed data over the last several years to determine, for the first time in the southern hemisphere, the tiny anisotropy of cosmic ray arrival direction distribution. The anisotropy shows a complex angular structure and a strong energy dependence from 10 TeV to a few PeV per particle. TeV cosmic ray anisotropy is being investigated as a possible new probe into the properties of the local interstellar medium and the heliosphere. Its astrophysical reaches are also being investigated.

Speaker: Markus Ahlers (Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen)
• 14:30
Neutrino astronomy: recent results and perspectives 30m

Neutrino astronomy has begun with the detection by the Gton scale IceCube telescope in 2013 of the first high energy neutrino cosmic candidates followed until today by around 80 others. So far the signal has not shown any sign of clusterisation and it’s origin remains unknown. Meanwhile, other detectors of tens of Mton scale, like ANTARES in the Mediterranean Sea and Baikal in the Russian homonymous lake, have been taking data aiming at confirming this detection and constraining its origin, opening the way for their Gton scale successors, KM3NeT and Baïkal-GVD both currently under construction and installation. In particular, the transparency of the water allows for a very good angular resolution in the reconstruction of signatures of interactions from neutrinos of all flavors. This results for Antares in unprecedented sensitivity for neutrino point-like or extended source searches in the Southern Sky at TeV energies, so that valuable constraints can be set on the origin of the cosmic neutrino flux discovered by the IceCube detector.

Neutrino telescopes given their sky-scale instantaneous filed of view and degree to sub-degree scale angular resolution can bring crucial localisation information for transient multi-messenger astronomy and bring new insight into the physics of the most violent phenomena of the Universe. They have taken part in the massive multi-messenger follow-up campaign of the gravitational wave events detected by Ligo and Virgo, in particular GW170817.

We will review the most recent results and present the perspectives opened by the new generation detectors currently in construction. They will represent a crucial asset in the multi-messenger observation and understanding of the non thermal Universe but also of fundamental physics like neutrino mass hierarchy with lower energy versions of the detectors like ORCA in KM3NeT.

Speaker: Bruny Baret (APC)
• 15:00
Fermi bubbles, their origin and possible connection to cosmic rays near the Earth 30m

Discovery of two giant structures seen in gamma-rays and radio, located above and below the Galactic center, known as Fermi bubbles, can be considered as one of the most interesting phenomena observed by Fermi-LAT. Their position and total energy content suggest a very strong energy outburst happened in the Galactic center in the past. During this talk we are going to review properties of the bubbles and point out what makes them so interesting, such as hard spectrum, correlation with radio emission and uniform brightness. We will cover some models of the origin of Fermi bubbles, discussing their pros and cons. We will also demonstrate how Fermi bubbles can affect spectrum of cosmic rays near the Earth at energies above 1 PeV.

Speaker: Dmitry Chernyshov (Lebedev's Institute of Physics, Moscow, Russia)
• 15:30
Astrospheres and Cosmic rays 30m

An ionization plays key role in formation of stars, planets ans their atmospheres. Cosmic rays are the main source of the ionization, therefore it is important to know and be able to estimate fluxes of galactic and stellar cosmic rays (GCR and SCR) at different stages of evolution of stars and planetary systems. Radiation conditions close to exoplanets might be important for creation and development of life. In our talk we will present a review of the current state of the problem of astrospheres and their interactions with GCR and SCR. It is supposed to pay a special attention to estimates of radiation conditions near exoplanets recently discovered in a habitable zone of their hosting stars.

Speaker: Alexei Struminsky (Space Research Institute)
• 16:00 16:15
Coffee-Break 15m
• 16:15 19:00
Excursions to the Museum of Archeology and Ethnography of Altai and laboratories of the Altai State University (Remote Sensing Center, Russian-American Anti-Cancer Center, Engineering Center "Prombioteh"). 2h 45m
• 16:15 19:00
Poster Session
• 19:00 21:00
Welcome Party 2h
• Saturday, 7 July
• 08:30 09:30
Registration Altai State University, Dimitrova street, 66 (Altai State University, Dimitrova street, 66)

### Altai State University, Dimitrova street, 66

#### Altai State University, Dimitrova street, 66

Altai State University, Dimitrova street, 66
• 09:30 11:30
Plenary Session: Plenary Session #3 Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

• 09:30
Muonography – a new method of investigations the near-terrastrial space 30m

The method is based on precisial measurements of the space-angular characteristics of the muon flux registered in the hodoscopic mode. Opportunities of using muonography for investigations of heliospheric, magnetospheric and atmospheric disturbances are considered. The results of experimental studies of such fenomena are discussed and the possibilities of their early detection are estimated.

Speaker: Natalya Barbashina (National research nuclear university MEPhI )
• 10:00
Latest Results from AMS 30m

The latest AMS charged cosmic ray measurements will be presented based on 100 billion cosmic ray events collected by AMS for the first 6 years of operation.

Speaker: Vitali Choutko (MIT)
• 10:30
From YangBaJing Cosmic Ray Experiments to LHAASO 30m

I'll briefly overview our cosmic ray researches with the old generation high altitude cosmic ray experiments at YangBaJing in the past decades and our pursuit for a new generation of gamma rays telescope in the very high energy region. Then I'll talk about the construction status and physics prospect of LHAASO.

Speaker: Hongbo Hu (Institute of High Energy Physics,CAS)
• 11:00
UHECRs: Recent Results, New Insights, and Open Issues 30m

Enormous progress has been made over the last couple of years in improving the quality and statistics of UHECR observations. This includes the shape of the energy spectrum, changes in the mass composition, the first significant observation of anisotropies at different angular scales, as well as the modeling of extensive air showers, and the advent of multimessenger observations. We shall review the recent observational progress, discuss the main interpretations and questions emerging from these results, and we shall sketch the goals and potential of future ground and space based projects.

Speaker: Karl-Heinz Kampert (University Wuppertal)
• 11:30 11:50
Coffee-Break 20m
• 11:50 13:00
Poster Session
• 13:00 14:00
Lunch 1h
• 14:00 16:45
Direct cosmic-ray observation Academic Council Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

• 14:00
Measurements of high-energy cosmic ray electrons with Fermi LAT 15m Academic Council Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

Abstract. Designed as a high-sensitivity gamma-ray observatory, the Fermi Large Area Telescope is also a Cosmic-Ray Electron (CRE) detector with a large acceptance exceeding $2 m^2 sr$ at 300 GeV. Building on the gamma-ray analysis, we have developed an efficient electron detection strategy which provides sufficient background rejection for the measurement of the steeply falling all-electron spectrum up to 2 TeV. After almost 10 years of operation on orbit, Fermi LAT has collected >20 M electrons above 7 GeV which enabled the reconstruction of the energy spectrum with high accuracy and also search for anisotropy in their arrival directions. Although Fermi LAT does not have an onboard magnet, electrons and positrons can be distinguished by exploiting Earth’s shadow, and positron-to-electron ratio and their separate spectra have been measured between 20 and 200 GeV. We provide an overview of all Fermi LAT results on high-energy electrons.

Speaker: Dr. Alexander Moiseev (CRESST/NASA/GSFC and University of Maryland )
• 14:15
Measurements of Heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei Spectra with CALET on the ISS 15m Academic Council Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

The CALorimetric Electron Telescope, CALET, was launched in August 2015 and has been measuring high-energy cosmic rays on the International Space Station since October 2015. In addition to the high-precision measurements of the all electron spectrum, CALET also performs the precise measurements of the energy spectra of elements from proton to iron, the relative abundances and the secondary-to-primary ratios to the highest energies ever directly observed in space. These will allow for the investigation of the details of their origin and propagation in the galaxy. The CALET instrument consists of two layers of segmented plastic scintillators to identify the individual elements from Z=1 to 40, a fine-grained imaging calorimeter to obtained complementary charge and tracking information, and a total absorption calorimeter to measure the energy with a total 30 radiation lengths and 1.3 nuclear interaction lengths. We will present the details of heavy nuclei analysis including the particle identification capabilities and the analysis of the systematic uncertainties.

Speaker: Yosui Akaike (UMBC-NASA/GSFC)
• 14:30
Space-based GAMMA-400 mission for direct gamma- and cosmic-ray observations 15m Academic Council Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

Future space-based GAMMA-400 mission is intended for direct gamma- and cosmic-ray observations in the highly elliptic orbit during 7-10 years. GAMMA-400, currently developing gamma-ray telescope, will observe in the energy range of ~20 MeV to several TeV some regions of the Universe (such as Galactic Center, Fermi Bubbles, Crab, Cygnus, etc.) with the unprecedented angular (~0.01° at Eγ = 100 GeV) and energy (~1% at Eγ = 100 GeV) resolutions better than the Fermi-LAT, as well as ground gamma-ray telescopes, by a factor of 5-10. GAMMA-400 will also study cosmic rays in the energy range of up to ~20 TeV due to deep calorimeter (22 r.l. and 53 r.l. for vertical and lateral events, respectively). GAMMA-400 will permit to resolve gamma rays from dark matter particles, identify many discrete sources (many of which are variable), to clarify the structure of extended sources, to specify the data on the diffuse emission. GAMMA-400 will also specify the sources and the cosmic-ray spectra of electrons + positrons.

Speaker: Nikolay Topchiev (Lebedev Physical Institute)
• 14:45
Review of the results of the space experiment NUCLEON 15m Academic Council Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

The NUCLEON space spectrometer was designed to measure the spectra of cosmic ray nuclei with an individual charge resolution in an energy range from a few TeV to 1 PeV per particle. On December 28, 2014, the NUCLEON detector was launched into a sun-synchronous orbit and have been operating up to now. The paper presents a review of main results of the NUCLEON observatory after three years of operation in orbit. Spectra of primary and secondary cosmic ray nuclei will be presented in the report an some new interesting features of cosmic ray spectra observed in the NUCLEON data will be discussed.

Speaker: Alexander Panov (SINP MSU)
• 15:00
Li and Be isotopes in the PAMELA experiment from flight data 2006-2014 15m Academic Council Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

New results of the isotopic composition measurements of lithium and beryllium nuclei in galactic cosmic rays with energies up to ~ 1 GeV / nucleon obtained in the PAMELA orbital experiment in 2006-2014 are presented. Data of the nuclei time-of-flight in a scintillation telescope and the distribution of ionization losses in the calorimeter from 44 layers of silicon strip detectors and tungsten with rigidities known from trajectories measurements used for isotopes selection. From the data obtained for the 7Li / 6Li, 7Be / 9Be and 10Be / 9Be ratio in the energy range ~ 0.1-1.3 GeV / nucleon probably received indications to contribute in the galactic cosmic ray flux of Li and Be nuclei sources from recent explosions close supernova.

Speaker: Edward Bogomolov (Ioffe Institute)
• 15:15
Observation of the Identical Rigidity Dependence of the Primary Cosmic Rays Helium, Carbon and Oxygen fluxes by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station 15m Academic Council Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

The precision measurement of primary cosmic rays fluxes (in particular helium, carbon and oxygen) in the rigidity range from 2 GV to 3 TV is presented based on 90 million helium, 8 million carbon and 7 million oxygen nuclei collected by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer during its first 5 years of operation.
Unexpectedly, above 60 GV, these three spectra have identical rigidity dependence, moreover they all deviate from a single power law above 200 GV and harden in an identical way.

Speaker: Federico Donnini (INFN Roma Tor Vergata)
• 15:30
Coffee-Break 15m
• 15:45
Precision Measurement of Electron and Positron Fluxes in Primary Cosmic Rays with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station 15m Academic Council Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

Precision measurements by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station of the primary cosmic ray e+,
e- and (e- + e+) fluxes in the energy range up to 2000 GeV are presented. The electron flux and the positron flux are significantly different in their magnitude and energy dependence, however their behavior is consistent with a contribution from a new source of high energy particle contributing equally to the fluxes of electrons and positrons.

Speaker: Dr. Weiwei Xu (MIT)
• 16:00
Observation of the New Properties of the Secondary Cosmic Rays Lithium, Berillium and Boron with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station 15m Academic Council Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

We report on the observation of new properties of secondary cosmic rays Li, Be, and B measured in the rigidity (momentum per unit charge) range 1.9 GV to 3.3 TV with a total of 5.4 million nuclei collected by AMS during the first five years of operation aboard the International Space Station. The Li and B fluxes have an identical rigidity dependence above 7 GV and all three fluxes have an identical rigidity dependence above 30 GV with the Li/Be flux ratio of 2.0±0.1. The three fluxes deviate from a single power law above 200 GV in an identical way. This behavior of secondary cosmic rays has also been observed in the AMS measurement of primary cosmic rays He, C, and O but the rigidity dependences of primary cosmic rays and of secondary cosmic rays are distinctly different. In particular, above 200 GV, the secondary cosmic rays harden more than the primary cosmic rays.

Speaker: Dr. Hu Liu
• 16:15
Measurements of the elemental composition of UHGCR with the SuperTIGER instrument 15m Academic Council Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

SuperTIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) is a large-area instrument designed to make precision measurements of the elemental composition of ultra-heavy galactic cosmic rays (UHGCR) with atomic number Z $\ge$ 30. The instrument is launched by a NASA long-duration balloon from Williams Field, Antarctica to the altitude of $35 \sim 40$ km and circumnavigates over the continent to observe the cosmic rays. The objective is to measure the abundances of nuclei with 30 $\le$ Z $\le$ 40 with clear individual element resolution and high statistical precision. The abundance measurements provide sensitive tests and clarification of the OB- association model of Galactic cosmic-ray origins, and test models for atomic processes by which nuclei are selected for acceleration to cosmic-ray energies. In its first flight, SuperTIGER recorded over 67 million cosmic-ray nuclei above the trigger threshold at $\sim$ Z $\ge$ 10 during 55 days of floating time and over 2.5 revolutions around the continent. The instrument worked properly during the flight and provided the excellent elemental composition measurements with the charge resolution of $\sigma_{Z}$ = 0.16 c.u. at $_{26}Fe$. The results support a model of cosmic-ray origin in OB associations, with a source mixture of $19\%$ material from massive stars and $\sim 81\%$ material with solar system abundances. The results also show a preferential acceleration of refractory element over volatile elements by a factor of between $\sim3$ and $\sim3.5$, ordered by atomic mass. The instrument was recovered from Antarctica 2 years after the flight and refurbished for the second flight with an intended launch in 2017/2018 Austral summer. The flight was cancelled due to unfavorable weather throughout the season at the launch site, however, the instrument has been stored there in perfect shape and seeking for a next flight opportunity at the coming season. Instrument, analysis details, and recent results from the SuperTIGER 1 balloon flight will be presented. Also a summary of the SuperTIGER 2 balloon campaign in 2017/2018 will be reported. SuperTIGER was developed by Washington University in St. Louis, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the California Institute of Technology, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the University of Minnesota.

Speaker: M. Sasaki (NASA / GSFC / CRESST / UMCP)
• 16:30
Main scientific results of the DAMPE mission 15m Academic Council Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is a space mission, resulting from the collaboration of Chinese, Italian, and Swiss institutions. Since December 2015, DAMPE orbits at the altitude of 500 km and collects data regularly. The detector is made of four sub-detectors: top layers of plastic scintillators, a silicon-tungsten tracker, a deep BGO calorimeter (32 radiation lengths), and a bottom boron-doped scintillator to detect delayed neutrons. The main goal of the mission is the search of indirect signals of Dark Matter in the electron and photon spectra with energies up to 10 TeV. Furthermore DAMPE is studying cosmic charged and gamma radiation. The calorimeter depth and the large effective acceptance allow to measure cosmic ray fluxes in the range from 20 GeV up to hundreds of TeV. An overview of the latest results about electron and positron flux, light component (p+He) of charged cosmic rays, and gamma rays will be presented.

Speaker: Paolo Bernardini (Università del Salento & INFN)
• 14:00 16:45
Solar and heliospheric cosmic rays Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

• 14:00
Analysis of sub-GLE and GLE events using NM data: space weather applications 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

Solar energetic particle (SEP) events provide important information on particles' acceleration and propagation in the interplanetary space. Detailed information on their spectra allows one to model various processes related to space weather and space climate, e.g., the radiation environment at flight altitudes and atmospheric ionization. The radiation environment in the vicinity of Earth and in the Earth's atmosphere is variable and highly dynamic as governed by galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). Another important, but sporadic, source, which makes the radiation environment in the vicinity of Earth and within its atmosphere highly dynamical, is related to eruptive solar processes, namely solar flares and coronal mass ejections, leading to production of SEPs. A special class of SEP events, called ground level enhancements (GLEs), registered by ground-based detectors, can dramatically change the radiation environemnt in the Earth's atmosphere.

A new high-altitude polar neutron monitors (NM) station, DOMC/B at the Antarctic Concordia station, and the long-operating South Pole station make the worldwide NM network very sensitive to strong SEP events. They are able to detect lower energy SEP events, which would not have been registered by the other (near sea level) NMs. This leads to a distinction of a new class of SEP events, called sub-GLE events.

Using the worldwide NM database (NMDB) records and an optimization procedure combined with a simulation of the global NM network response, we assessed the spectral and angular characteristics of SEPs for several sub-GLE events. With the estimated spectral characteristics as an input, we evaluated the effective dose rate in polar and sub-polar regions at typical commercial flight altitude during such events as well as during GLEs.

Speaker: Aleksandar Mishev (University of Oulu)
• 14:15
On the rigidity spectrum of the long-term cosmic ray variations 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

In 2017 it was 60 years for the world-wide network of cosmic ray (CR) stations. The duration of the continuous registration of CRs by stable operating detectors provides the research of long-term CR variations and allows to obtain information on large-scale manifestations of the solar activity (SA).
The average monthly characteristics of CR variations in 19-24 SA cycles on the basis of CR observations by the world-wide network of neutron monitors, the meson telescope and the data on the stratosphere sounding were processed using the global survey method and a three-parameter model of the rigidity dependence of CR variations (δJ/J(R) = a/(b+R)γ). The parameters of the spectrum of CR variations are given in this paper for particles with a rigidity of 10 GV ( the energy to which neutron monitors are most sensitive).
The behavior of the parameter γ in the proposed model for 6 SA cycles makes it possible to reveal the periodicities that reflect the dependence of the CR variations on the cycle epoch and on the sign of the global magnetic field of the Sun.
It is shown that the amplitude of the 22-year wave in the observed CR intensity increases from cycle to cycle, reaching the highest value in the 23/24 cycle minimum. In the last three minima of the SA, the softening of the spectrum of CR variations is observed. Anomalous changes in the spectrum during the "mini-cycle" (1972-1974), known in the literature, are confirmed.
A study of the connection between the polarity of the global magnetic field of the Sun and the rigidity dependence of the variations provides an experimental examination of certain conclusions of CR modulation theory in the heliosphere, allowing, in particular, to confirm the theoretical dependence of the R-2 spectrum of variations in the solar minima for negative SA cycles.

Speaker: Victor Yanke (IZMIRAN)
• 14:45
Reconstruction of solar modulation potential from the new PAMELA data and comparison with neutron monitors 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

Recently the PAMELA colllaboration published new results about solar modulation of GCR protons from beginning 2010 to the end of 2014. Together with data published earlier it gives the opportunity to study the solar modulation with accuracy that was unreachable before. In this talk the reconstuction of solar modulation potential during period from July 2006 to September 2014 is presented and the comparison with neutron monitor data is given. It is shown that new data reveal a new opportunities to check and calibrate neutron monitor yield function.

Speaker: Sergey Koldobskiy (Naitonal Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow, Russia)
• 15:00
Solar activity and cosmic ray variations in September, 2017 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

We present results of data analysis of solar activity and cosmic ray variations in September, 2017. This period characterized by the burst of the SEP activity on the background of the late desreasing phase of 24th solar activity cycle. Solar protons were observed by the satellite based instruments, in the atmosphere and by the ground-based neutron monitor network. Also the significant Forbush-decrease was recorded with a number of instruments, e.g. neutron monitors, CARPET instruments at various latitudes. Available databases on solar activity and cosmic ray variations were used in analysis.

Speaker: Dr. Vladimir Makhmutov (Lebedev Physical Institute RAS)
• 15:15
Estimate of solar and galactic cosmic ray spectra from lunar samples 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

Samples of rocks and soil brought from the Moon by the Apollo and Luna missions are unique and very useful objects to studies both solar and galactic cosmic rays (SEP and GCR, respectively) on long time scales, thanks to the content of long-living isotopes produced in situ by energetic particles. Contrary to the Earth, those objects experience no geomagnetic and atmospheric shielding and, thus, are constantly irradiated by the low-energy part of cosmic rays. Because of in situ production, it is possible to reconstruct particle energy spectra from the depth profiles of cosmogenic nuclides applying a proper production model and losing, however, the temporal resolution. This approach was explored earlier, but applying an a-priori assumed spectral shapes of SEP and fitting the corresponding parameters into measured data.

Here we propose a model-independent method free of any a-priori assumptions of SEP energy spectra, based on a brand-new model of in-situ nuclide production by cosmic rays, including also non-negligible contribution of pions. With it, we reconstructed both the GCR and SEP integral fluxes on a million-year timescale, using measurements of the Al-26 isotope depth profiles in lunar samples. The results are compared with the modern space-era values.

Speaker: Dr. Stepan Poluianov (1 Space Climate Research Unit, University of Oulu, Finland; 2 Sodankyla Geophysical Observatory, University of Oulu, Finland)
• 15:30
Coffee-Break 15m
• 15:45
Distribution of cosmic rays in the heliosphere by data of a muon telescope network 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

In ShICRA in 1967 a method of global survey was developed. The method allows using the world-wide network of neutron monitors as a single multidirectional device and obtaining an information about a distribution of cosmic rays for every measuring moment. In analogy with this approach, in the current work we offer a preliminary variant of a new method that allows to obtain an information about a large-scale distribution in the heliosphere of high energy cosmic rays for every hour of observation by the data of measurements of a world network of muon telescope stations: Yakutsk, Nagoya, Kuwait, Hobart and Sao-Martinho. In order to implement the method, we have determined receiving characteristics of the stations, that includes calculations of cosmic rays trajectories in geomagnetic field in registration directions of the devices, their directional diagrams and response functions.

Speaker: Mr. Petr Gololobov (Yu.G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy of SB RAS (ShICRA))
• 16:00
Observation of a time lag in solar modulation of cosmic rays in the heliosphere 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

The solar modulation effect of Galactic cosmic rays is a time-dependent phenomenon that is caused by the transport of these particles in the magnetized plasma of the heliosphere. Using a data-driven model of cosmic-ray transport in the heliosphere, in combination with a large collection of data, we report the evidence for a eight-month time lag between observations of solar activity and measurements of cosmic-ray fluxes in space. As we will discuss, this result enables us to forecast the cosmic-ray flux at Earth well in advance by monitoring solar activity. We also compare our predictions with the new multi-channel measurements of cosmic rays operated by the AMS experiment in space.

Speaker: Miguel Orcinha (CERN)
• 16:15
Cosmic ray modulation in the 23-rd and 24-th solar cycles according to measurements in the atmosphere 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

The experimental data on cosmic ray fluxes in the atmosphere of polar and middle latitudes are presented for the period from the 1957 till now. We analyze cosmic ray fluxes in the Regener-Pfotzer maximum. Special attention is paid to the analysis of cosmic ray fluxes in the periods of 2008 -2009 (minimum of the 23-rd solar cycle) and 2017-2018 (almost cminimum of the 24-th solar cycle). In spite of that the cosmic ray fluxes observed in 2017 were rather high (higher than in 1965) we suggest that maximum of these fluxes will be reached in the second part of current 2018.

Speaker: Prof. Yuri Stozhkov (Lebedev Physical Institution RAS)
• 16:30
Distribution of solar proton event fluences measured near the Earth over the heliolongitude of their sources 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

Distribution of energetic protons fluences in solar proton events during 19–24 solar cycles over the heliolongitude of their sources have been considered.
It is commonly assumed, that because the solar charged particles propagate along the magnetic field lines of Archimedes spiral, the optimal interval of heliolongitudes of their injection for arriving near the Earth is 50–60°. And the distribution of the number of solar proton events over the heliolongitude of their sources seems to prove this point.
However, the analysis taking into account the fluences of protons in these events have shown, that ~70% of the total proton fluence, measured near the Earth, is given by the events, which sources were located near the central meridian of the Sun.
The physical reasons for this result apparently are the peculiarities of the injection and propagation of the energetic protons from the most powerful solar flares.

Speaker: Mikhail Podzolko (D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (SINP MSU))
• 14:00 16:45
Сosmic rays below the knee. New phenomena and their interpretation ASU Library

### ASU Library

#### Altai State University

• 14:00
Cosmic ray signatures of a 2-3 Myr old local supernova 15m ASU Library

### ASU Library

#### Altai State University

The supernova explosion which deposited Fe-60 isotopes on Earth 2-3 million years ago should have also produced cosmic rays which contribute to the locally observed cosmic ray flux. We show that the contribution of this local source'' causes theanomalies'' observed in the positron and antiproton fluxes and explains why their spectral shapes agree with that of the proton flux. At the same time, this local source component accounts for the difference in the slopes of the spectra of cosmic ray nuclei as the result of the slightly varying relative importance of the local and the average component for distinct CR nuclei. Such a local supernova model for the spectra of nuclei can be tested via a combined measurement of the energy dependence of the boron-to-carbon (primary-to-secondary cosmic rays) ratio and of the antiproton spectrum: While the antiproton spectrum is predicted to extend approximately as a power law into the TeV range without any softening break,the B/C ratio is expected to show a "plateau" at a level fixed by the observed positron excess in the 30-300 GeV range. We discuss the observability of such a plateau with dedicated experiments for the measurement of the cosmic ray composition in the 10 TeV energy range (NUCLEON, ISS-CREAM).

Speakers: Dr. Andrii Neronov (University of Geneva), Dr. Dmitri Semikoz (APC Paris), Michael Kachelriess (NTNU)
• 14:15
Cosmic ray acceleration in SNRs of different types 15m ASU Library

### ASU Library

#### Altai State University

Cosmic ray acceleration by astrophysical shocks in supernova remnants of different types is discussed. Results of numerical modeling for young and middle-age supernova remnants and acceleration in interstellar bubbles created by powerful stellar winds of supernova progenitors are presented. Applications are given for expected chemical composition and spectra of galactic cosmic ray sources.

Speaker: Vladimir Zirakashvili (Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation, 108840 Troitsk Moscow, Russia)
• 14:30
GALPROP Code for Galactic Cosmic Ray Propagation and Associated Photon Emissions 15m ASU Library

### ASU Library

#### Altai State University

Last decade is marked with many breakthroughs in astrophysics of cosmic rays, and more are expected in the nearest future. Their proper interpretation is impossible without a well-developed propagation code. The GALPROP project celebrates its 22nd anniversary this year. This project is devoted to the development of a self-consistent model for CR propagation in the Galaxy and associated diffuse emissions (radio, microwave, X-rays, gamma-rays). The project stimulated independent studies of the interstellar radiation field, distribution of the interstellar gas (H2, H I, H II), synchrotron emission and the Galactic magnetic field, and isotopic production cross sections. Version 56 that have many new capabilities has recently become public. I will talk about recent updates to the code and results. As always, the latest release is available through the WebRun, a service to the scientific community enabling easy use of the GALPROP code via web browsers.

Speaker: Igor Moskalenko (Stanford University)
• 14:45
Investigation of abnormal absorption of cosmic-ray hadrons in lead calorimeters 15m ASU Library

### ASU Library

#### Altai State University

It is presented the systematic analysis of data from experiments in which absorption of cosmic-ray hadrons in lead was studied by means of deep calorimeters installed at mountain altitudes. We confirm the existence of the so-called ‘long-flying component’ of cosmic rays – an unusual phenomenon which manifests itself in an excess of energy released by hadrons at large depths of lead and which was first observed in the early 1970s in an experiment with the Big Ionization Calorimeter at Tien Shan Mountain Station and a little later in experiments with deep uniform X-ray emulsion chambers at the Pamirs. To prove the hypothesis that charmed particles are responsible for abnormally weak absorption of hadrons in lead we exposed at Tien Shan and at the Pamirs X-ray emulsion chambers of special design with a large air gap separating two blocks of the chamber. The experimental data was compared with results of a detailed simulation of the detector response making use of FANSY 1.0 code invented for modeling of hadronic and nuclear interactions at high energies. The comparison reveals a qualitative agreement between experimental and simulated data under the assumption of very high values of charm particle production cross section at E_Lab ~ 75 TeV in the forward kinematic region at x_Lab > 0.1 which are near the upper limit of the recent results of collider experiments, i.e., σ(pp→charm) ~ 8 mb/nucleon.
However, we observe some deviations of experimental data with respect to simulation results on the only assumption of increase of charm production cross section with energy. New factors are need to explain the discrepancies. A possible role of single muons and narrow muon groups are discussed.

Speaker: Dr. Alexander Borisov (LPI RAS)
• 15:00
Primary Energy Spectrum by the Data of EAS Cherenkov Light Arrays Tunka-133 and TAIGA-HiSCORE. 15m ASU Library

### ASU Library

#### Altai State University

Tunka-133 collected data since 2009. The data of 7 winter seasons (2009-2014 and 2015-2017) are processed and analyzed till now. The new TAIGA-HiSCORE, designed for gamma astronomy tasks mostly, can be used for reconstruction of the all primary particle energy spectrum too. These two arrays provide the very wide range of primary energy measurements 10^14 – 10^18 eV with the same method of Cerenkov light registration. The new common data on the primary energy spectrum in this wide range are presented.

Speaker: Vasily Prosin (Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics Lomonosov Moscow State University)
• 15:15
The inner region of the Galactic Center in X-rays 15m ASU Library

### ASU Library

#### Altai State University

The inner region of the Galactic Center, known to contain supermassive black hole Sgr A, has come under intense scrutiny in recent years, mainly thanks to exciting broad-band observations of this region, carried out in radio, submillimeter, infrared (IR), X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths with unprecedented clarity and spectral resolution. The Galactic Center is the closest available galactic nucleus, which can be studied with a high spatial resolution that is impossible to achieve with other galaxies. The nearby environment of Sgr A contains a variety of astrophysical objects, including supernova remnants (SNRs), pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), dense molecular clouds (MCs), star clusters, mysterious non-thermal filamentary structures, which is providing a wealth of high-energy processes for detailed studies. In this review, I will summarize the latest observational results of the inner few parcecs of the Galactic Center, obtained with orbital telescopes operating in soft (2-10 keV) and hard (>10 keV) X-ray bands.

Speaker: Roman Krivonos (Space Research Institute (IKI), Moscow, Russia)
• 15:30
Coffee-Break 15m
• 15:45
Origin of the proton and helium spectral hardening and the spectral upturn in heavier nuclei to iron ratios 15m ASU Library

### ASU Library

#### Altai State University

Recent balloon-borne and satellite experiments have established new features in the behavior of the spectra of cosmic rays. An analysis of all the data showed that hardening of protons and helium spectra with increasing energies is observed in $> 300$ GeV/nucleon region. At the same time, the spectral upturn in heavier nuclei to iron ratios at $\sim 50$ GeV/nucleon has been reported by the ATIC-2 experiment.
In this talk we discuss a new scenario that self-consistently describes these new features of the observed cosmic ray spectra. New crucial model predictions, which could be verified with improved high-precision measurements in the near future by AMS-02, DAMPE, CALET, are also presented.

This work was supported in part by the Ministry of Education and Science of The Russian Federation (state assignment for the fundamental and applied research performed at Altai State University; project No 3.5939.2017/8.9).

Speaker: Dr. Nikolay Volkov (Altai State University)
• 16:00
The first detection of TeV gamma-rays from Red Dwarfs 15m ASU Library

### ASU Library

#### Altai State University

It is accepted that the sources of cosmic rays in Galaxy are explosions of supernovae. They produce these particles up to energies of ~10^17 eV. However, the experimental data obtained with Pamela, Fermi, AMS-02 spectrometers requires the existence of nearby sources of cosmic rays at the distances =<1 kpc from the solar system. These sources could explain such experimental data as the growth of the ratio of galactic positrons to electrons with increase of their energy, the complex dependence of the exponent of the proton and alpha spectra from the energy of these particles, the appearance of anomaly component in cosmic rays.
We consider active dwarf stars as possible sources of galactic cosmic rays in energy range up to ~10^14 eV. These stars produce powerful stellar flares in which cosmic rays are generated. The generation of high-energy cosmic rays has to be accompained by high-energy gamma-ray emission.
Here we present the SHALON long-term observation data aimed to search for gamma-ray emission above 800 GeV from the active red dwarf stars. The data obtained during more than 10 years observations of the dwarf stars V962 Tau, V780 Tau, V388 Cas and V1589 Cyg were analyzed. The high-energy gamma-ray emission in the TeV energy range mostly of flaring type from the sources mentioned above was detected. This result confirms that active dwarf stars are also the sources of high-energy galactic cosmic rays.

Speaker: Prof. Yuri Stozhkov (Lebedev Physical Institute RAS)
• 16:15
Twelve years of direct cosmic ray measurements with PAMELA 15m ASU Library

### ASU Library

#### Altai State University

The PAMELA cosmic ray detector was launched on June $15^\text{th}$ 2006 on board the Russian Resurs-DK1 satellite, and during ten years of nearly continuous data-taking it has observed new interesting features in cosmic rays.

In a decade of operation it has provided plenty of scientific data, covering different issues related to cosmic ray physics. The antimatter measurements, focus of the experiment, have set strong constraints to the nature of Dark Matter. Search for signatures of more exotic processes (such as the ones involving Strange Quark Matter) was also pursued.

Furthermore, the long-term operation of the instrument had allowed a constant monitoring of the solar activity during its maximum and a detailed and prolonged study of the solar modulation, improving the comprehension of the heliosphere mechanisms. PAMELA had also measured the radiation environment around the Earth, and it detected for the first time the presence of an antiproton radiation belt surrounding our planet.

The operation of Resurs-DK1 was terminated in 2016 but the data analysis is continuing, bringing new interesting and valuable results.

In this talk I will summarize of the most relevant PAMELA measurements over twelve years of analysis, giving special emphasis to the latest results.

Speaker: Roberta Sparvoli (for the PAMELA Collaboration)
• 16:30
The TAIGA observatory - a hybrid detector complex for high energy gamma-ray astronomy and cosmic ray physics in the Tunka valley 15m ASU Library

### ASU Library

#### Altai State University

The physical motivations and advantages of the new gamma-observatory TAIGA (Tunka Advanced Instrument for cosmic ray physics and Gamma Astronomy) are presented. The TAIGA observatory addresses ground-based gamma-ray astronomy at energies from a few TeV to several PeV, as well as cosmic ray physics from 100 TeV to several EeV. For the energy range 30 – 200 TeV the sensitivity of 5 km^2 area TAIGA observatory for detection of the local sources is expected 10^{−13} erg cm^{−2} sec^{−1} for 500 h of observation. The combination of the wide angle Cherenkov timing detectors of the TAIGA-HiSCORE array and the 4-m class Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes of the TAIGA-IACT array with their FoV of 10x10 degrees offers a very cost effective-way to construct a 5 km^2 array. Reconstruction of an EAS energy, direction and core position basing on the TAIGA-HiSCORE data allow to increase a distance between expensive an IACT up to 600 -800 m. The low investments together with the high sensitivity for energies ≥ 30-50 TeV make this pioneering technique very attractive for exploring the galactic PeVatrons and cosmic rays. In addition to the Cherenkov light detectors we intend to deploy a net of muon detectors (TAIGA-Muon array) over an area of 1 km^2 with a total area of muon detectors about 1000 m2. The TAIGA-IACT together with the TAIGA-Muon array will be used for selection of gamma-ray induced EAS.
At present the TAIGA first stage have been constructed in the Tunka valley, ~50 km West from Lake Baikal. Now it consists of 45 TAIGA-HiSCORE Cherenkov stations distributed over an area of 0.4 km^2 and first IACT of the TAIGA-IACT array. During 2018-2019 years we intend to increase number of the TAIGA-HiSCORE stations up to 100 on the area of 1 km^2 and to deploy 2 additional IACTs of the TAIGA-IACT array. The first experimental results which were got with the TAIGA first stage will be reported.

Speaker: Prof. Nikolay Budnev (Irkutsk State University)
• 16:45 17:15
Acceleration of cosmic rays Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

• 16:45
Zooming into the AGN engines with Earth-based and Space VLBI 15m

Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) offers unrivalled resolution in studies the most powerful engines of the Universe, Active galactic Nuclei (AGN). The space-borne extension of the VLBI technique, space VLBI (SVLBI) allows observers to peer almost in the event horizon of super-massive black holes (SMBH). The presentation gives an overview of the current state and near-future prospects of VLBI studies of AGN with the emphasis on potential synergies with search and investigation of generators of Cosmic Rays. The presentation also introduces results of the on-going Russia-led international SVLBI mission RadioAstron which conducts observations at the wavelengths of 92, 18, 6 and 1.3 cm with baselines an order of magnitude longer than the Earth diameter, therefore offering an order of magnitude “sharper” view at the brightest radio sources than achieved with Earth-based VLBI systems. Over the first 6.5 years of the in-orbit operations, the mission achieved successful VLBI detections of extragalactic continuum radio sources at all four observing bands. To date, detections on SVLBI baselines have been obtained for more than 150 AGN’s at projected baselines up to 350 000 km (about 28 Earth diameters, ED). The highest resolution achieved is 14 microarcscends from 1.3 cm observations. One of the major results of the RadioAstron mission to date is detection of brightness temperatures in AGN exceeding the Inverse Compton limit of $10^{11.5}$ K. This result broadens the scope of understanding of the physical processes of generation of EM emission by AGN and its propagation through the interstellar medium. The presentation focuses at new results on total intensity and polarisation imaging with extreme angular resolution of blazars and nearby active galaxies. Physical implications for the AGN jets formation, magnetic field and emission mechanism will be discussed on the basis of the results obtained to date.

Speaker: Leonid Gurvits (Joint Institute for VLBI ERIC and Delft University of Technology)
• 17:00
Cosmic ray acceleration in accretion flows of galaxy clusters 15m

We investigate acceleration of cosmic rays by shocks and accretion flows in galaxy clusters. Numerical results for spectra of accelerated particles and nonthermal emission are presented. It is shown that the acceleration of protons and nuclei in the nearby galaxy cluster Virgo can explain the observed spectra of ultra high energy cosmic rays.

Speaker: Vladimir Zirakashvili (Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation, 108840 Troitsk Moscow, Russia)
• 16:45 18:30
Workshops section I: Workshops section I. LPM effect and its applications for extremely high energy cosmic ray research Academic Council Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

• 16:45
The fundamentals of the LPM showers in water over $10^{21}\mathrm{eV}$. 15m

1 Introduction
The present highest energy observed in the cosmic rays physics is $10^{20}\mathrm{eV}$ or something like this observed in the extensive air showers.
Here, we discuss the fundamentals of the LPM showers over $10^{21}\mathrm{eV}$ for future studies on the neutrino astronomy at the same energies. The reasons why we choose $10^{21}\mathrm{eV}$ are as follows: the first is that $10^{21}\mathrm{eV}$ has a symbolical meaning of higher than "the existed highest energy" and the second is that the drastic changes in these energies are expected among all the LPM showers.

2 Results obtained
We calculate the varieties of physical results over $10^{21}\mathrm{eV}$ to $10^{23}\mathrm{eV}$ in the LPM showers, keeping $E_{prim}/E_{min}=10^{5}$ as accurately as possible by the Exact Monte Carlo method. The validity of our method in the Monte Carlo procedure has been proven from different angles. (Konshi et al, Nuovo Cimento 44A, 8 (1978) 509).
We obtain the transition curves for electron numbers as well as for the corresponding Cherenkov light, energy flows for electrons, and track length for electrons.
We examine the details of the fluctuation around those physical quantities.
In our submitted paper, we report our results mentioned above, emphasizing the importance of the diversities among LPM showers.
The final purpose of our present paper is that we obtain the lateral distribution for the Cherenkov light whose origins are electrons higher than 1 MeV for given depths for primary energies of electrons or photons. However, in the present calculations, we limit our the minimum energy for the exact calculations from $10^{18}\mathrm{eV}$ (for the primary energy of $10^{23}\mathrm{eV}$) to $10^{16}\mathrm{eV}$, all of which are greatly higher than 1 MeV ($10^{6}\mathrm{eV}$), minimum detection energy, for Cherenkov light. Finally, we are forced to combine the present exact Monte Carlo method with hybrid method.

Speaker: Akeo Misaki (Saitama University)
• 17:00
The historical Introduction to the LPM showers and the main purpose for our workshop 15m

At extremely high energies, [1] The average behavior of the LPM showers is quite different from that of the BH showers. [2] The behavior of the individual LPM shower is quite different from that of the averaged one. The main discussions in the workshop are expected to carry out around the diversity of the LPM showers.
[a] The pioneering work before the LPM showers: Pomansky (Izv.Akad.Nauk SSSR, Ser.Fiz 32, (1967) 497)
In spite of incorrectness of his calculation, his pioneering work should be highly appreciated.
[b] The first naming of the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal Effect (LPM effect) and first correct LPM shower: Misaki et al (1974)
Misaki et al gave the first correct cascade showers due to LPM effect on the exact Monte Carlo Procedure. The physical term of the LPM effect was utilized firstly in this paper. (Proc.Inter.Cosmic Ray Sympo (1974) 142, Tokyo)
[c] The first correct LPM shower in both the one-dimensional and the three dimensional: Konishi et al (1978) (Nuovo Cimento 44A, (1978) 509)
The rigid Monte Carlo procedure for the correct LPM showers was established in both 1-dimensional and 3-dimensional. They gave correct LPM shower in both dimensions.
[d] Big differences between the averaged LPM shower and the averaged BH shower.
The careful examination on the validity of the LPM showers:
Misaki (Phys.Rev.D40 (1989) 3086), Misaki (Fortschr.Phys.83 (1990) 414, Misaki (Nuovo Cimento 13C (1990) 733)
Misaki clarified the big difference between the averaged LPM shower and the averaged BH shower over $10^{15}\mathrm{eV}$ to $10^{21}\mathrm{eV}$ in lead, water and standard rock with the use of matrix method.
[e] The LPM showers are strongly characterized by the concept of diversity:
Konishi et al (J.Phys.Nucl.Part.Phys.17 (1991) 719)
In this paper, they clarified the concept of "average" of the LPM showers has almost lost the physical meaning.

Speaker: Akeo Misaki (Saitama University)
• 17:15
LPM effect in cosmic-ray electron observations with emulsion chambers 15m

We have performed a series of cosmic-ray electron observations using balloon-borne emulsion chambers since 1968, together with electron beam tests at CERN-SPS. In emulsion chamber experiments, we can measure the location of shower tracks in each emulsion plate with a precision of 1 micrometer. Because of the high position resolution, we can identify the first electron-positron pairs of electron-induced showers, so-called shower starting points. The LPM effect predicts a reduction of amplitude for bremsstrahlung photon emission by an electron at high energy region. It causes the depth of the shower starting point to increase. From the measurements of the shower starting points with 200GeV and 250GeV beam electrons at CERN, and cosmic ray electrons from 400GeV to 3TeV on average at 900GeV, we found the direct evidence of suppression of the bremsstrahlung cross section due to the LPM effect. In this work, we present the experimental results compared with analytical calculations and Monte-Carlo simulations.

Speaker: Prof. Kenji Yoshida (Shibaura Institute of Technology)
• 17:30
Lateral distributons of electrons in air showers initiated by ultra-high energy gamma quanta taking into account LPM and geomagnetic field effects 15m

Lateral distributions of electrons in air showers initiated by photons of ultra-high energies ($10^{18}-10^{22}$ eV) obtained on the basis of numerical solution of adjoint cascade equations are presented. An extended analysis has been made considering separately the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect and the interaction of photons and electrons with the geomagnetic field (GMF) with respect to the scaling formalism and air shower universality concept. It is shown that one-parametric scaling description of the lateral distribution of electrons remains valid up to the highst energies considering the LPM and GMF effects, that allow effective primary particle type discrimination using the surface particle detectors data of largest ground-based air shower arrays.

Speaker: Tatyana Serebryakova
• 17:45
Application of a Revised Molière Theory to the Description of the Landau–Pomeranchuk–Migdal Effect 15m

We present analytical and numerical results of obtaining the high-energy Coulomb corrections (CCs) to the parameters of a revised Molière multiple scattering theory for a wide range of the nuclear charge number Z of the target atom and show that these corrections have a large value which increases up to 40% − 45% for Z = 92. We also report our results of applying this revised Molière multiple scattering theory for calculating CCs to the quantities of the Migdal theory of the Landau–Pomeranchuk–Migdal (LPM) effect in the regimes of strong and small LPM suppression. We demonstrate that the improved Migdal LPM effect theory and its analogue for a thin layer of matter allow one to completely eliminate the discrepancy between the predictions of the LPM effect theory and their measurement at least for high-Z targets and also to further improve the agreement between the predictions of the LPM effect theory analogue for a thin layer of matter and experimental data. Our approach can also be useful for the analysis of cosmic-ray experiments in ultrahigh-energy region, where the LPM effect becomes significant (for instance, in applications motivated by superhigh-energy IceCubes neutrino-induced showers with energies above 1 PeV, in exploring the behavior and properties of the extremely high-energy LPM showers, for the computation of their characteristics, etc.)

Speaker: Dr. Hrach Torosyan (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research)
• 18:00
Free (informal) discussion 30m
• 16:45 18:00
Workshops section II: Workshops section II. Hadron Interactions at superhigh energies (colliders and cosmic rays) ASU Library

### ASU Library

#### Altai State University

• 16:45
Does superhigh-energy cosmic-ray coplanarity contradict to LHC data? 15m

A new phenomenological model FANSY 2.0 is designed, which makes it possible to simulate hadron interactions via traditional and coplanar generation of most energetic particles as well as to reproduce a lot of LHC (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, TOTEM, LHCf) data. Features of the model are compared with LHC data. Problems of coplanarity model versions are considered and a testing experiment at LHC is proposed.

Speaker: Dr. Rauf Mukhamedshin (Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences)
• 17:00
Possible approaches to the analysis of nucleus-nucleus interactions at very high energies. 15m

Abstract
In most part of models describing primary cosmic ray interactions with atomic nuclei of the atmosphere, primary nuclei are considered as a complex of A nucleons. But at energies ~ TeV in the center of mass system, which correspond to energies > 1015 eV in cosmic rays, some transition from quark-quark interactions to interaction of many quarks and gluons occurs. In the talk, various approaches to phenomenological description of such interactions are considered.

Speaker: Anatoly Petrukhin (MEPhI)
• 17:15 18:00
CR interactions with the interstellar medium and enigmatic phenomena observed in X-ray and gamma-ray ranges Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

• 17:15
X-Ray polarimetry as a probe of magnetic turbulence in supernova remnants. IXPE perspective. 15m

Supersonic expansion of young supernova remnant (SNR) in the interstellar medium leads to formation of a strong collisionless shock wave. Such waves efficiently accelerate charged particles by diffusion shock acceleration (DSA) mechanism. The particle acceleration process is accompanied by efficient amplification of turbulent magnetic fields. Accelerated electrons effectively emit synchrotron radiation so SNRs are the sources of nonthermal emission. The evolution of produced turbulent magnetic field spectrum is a complicated process that can involve wave interactions and cascading processes. The structure of SNR intensity and polarization maps is sensitive to the peculiarities of the turbulent magnetic field. The X-ray energy band is the most sensitive for this effect because X-ray synchrotron radiation comes from a narrow region near the front of the shock where the more energetic electrons are concentrated.
We discuss the results of numerical simulation of synchrotron radiation maps obtained for different models of magnetic turbulence. We consider isotropic and axially symmetric turbulent fields with different power spectra. We obtain that model SNR synchrotron images simulated with cascading effect taken into account could have some features in the predominant polarization angle direction that make them different from images simulated with the account only for the effect of field compression. We also discuss the observational capabilities of the new generation of X-ray polarimeters, such as XIPE (ESA) and IXPE (NASA), to study magnetic turbulence in the vicinity of SNR.

Speaker: Yury Uvarov (Ioffe Institute, St.Petersburg, Russia)
• 17:30
Possible model of forming relativistic jets and disks in astrophysical objects 15m

I analyze the solution of the problem concerning ejection of charged particles from a sphere, outside which there is the Parker magnetic field. Depending on the magnetic field polarity, the particles escaping the sphere are shown to be either focused along the field symmetry axis, or drift from the axis along the equatorial plane. From this analysis, it follows that the obtained solutions may appear useful to understand the process of forming relativistic jets and disks observed in many space objects.

Key words: astrophysics, relativistic jets and disks

Speaker: Dr. Gennady Kichigin (Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences)
• 17:45
Measurement of low-energy cosmic rays via the neutral iron line 15m

Galactic cosmic rays are thought to be accelerated via diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) in supernova remnants (SNRs). In DSA, suprathermal particles (low-energy cosmic rays; LECRs) are accelerated to relativistic energy through multiple crossings of the shock front. Thus, the energy spectra and fluxes of the LECRs provide a key link to generation of relativistic cosmic rays. However, there has been very few observation of LECRs below the MeV band due to the lack of an effective probe to investigate them. When LECRs collide with interstellar gas, they ionize neutral iron atoms and emit the neutral iron line at 6.4 keV [1]. We have started a campaign to search for the 6.4 keV line in SNRs. We have already discovered the line emission from more than 10 SNRs [2-4]. The spectra and morphologies suggest that the 6.4 keV line is produced by interactions between LECR protons and the adjacent cold gas. The proton energy density is estimated to be 10–100 eV/cc, which is more than 10 times higher than that in the ambient interstellar medium. Furthermore, we measured the distribution of the 6.4 keV line emission along the Galactic plane and found an enhancement emission from a giant molecular cloud located near the Galactic center [5]. The most plausible origin of the enhancement is the low-energy proton bombardment. The energy density of the protons in the MeV band is estimated to be 20--80 eV/cc. Since the diffusion length of MeV protons is short, the MeV protons should be produced in situ. Surprisingly, there is no SNR in the vicinity. The LECRs would possibly be generated by stochastic acceleration via alfven turbulence.
1] Tatischeff et al. 2012, A&A, 546, A88 [2] Nobukawa et al. 2018, ApJ, 854, 87 [3] Saji et al. 2018, PASJ, in press [4] Saji 2018, Ph.D. thesis (Nagoya University) [5] Nobukawa et al. 2015, ApJL, 807, L10

Speaker: Dr. Kumiko Nobukawa (Nara Women's University)
• Sunday, 8 July
• 09:00 11:45
Cosmic rays at Earth and Planets. Applied aspects of cosmic rays Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

• 09:00
The CSES mission 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

CSES (China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite) is a mission in collaboration between CNSA (Chinese National Space Administration) and ASI (Italian Space Agency). Realized by CEA (China Earthquake Administration) together with several Chinese Institutions and INFN (Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics) in cooperation with INAF (Italian National Institute of Astrophysics), INGV (National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology) and other Italian institutions, it is in orbit since February 2 nd 2018. The main objective is the investigation of the near-Earth electromagnetic, plasma and particle environment and the study of the seismo-associated disturbances in the ionosphere-magnetosphere transition zone, the anthropogenic electromagnetic noise as well as the natural non-seismic electromagnetic emissions, mainly due to tropospheric activity. In particular, the mission aims at confirming the existence of possible temporal correlations between the occurrence of earthquakes of medium and strong magnitude and the observation in space of electromagnetic perturbations, plasma variations and precipitation of bursts of high-energy charged particles from the inner Van Allen belt.
On board of the CSES satellite, orbiting Sun-synchronous at about 500 km of altitude with an inclination of 97.4°, there are installed two Particle Detectors, a Search Coil Magnetometer, a High-Precision Magnetometer, an Electric Field Detector, a Plasma Analyzer, a Langmuir probe, a GNSS Occultation Receiver and a Tri-Band Beacon. The multi-instrument payload allows, by measuring simultaneously several different parameters, a more reliable identification of the signatures of the studied phenomena.
The in-flight performance of the scientific payload and some preliminary results will be presented at the conference.

Speaker: Roberta Sparvoli
• 09:15
The upgraded GLE database includes assessment of radiation exposure at flight altitudes 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

Radiation field due to cosmic rays at cruising aviation altitudes is an important topic in the field of space weather. While the effect of galactic cosmic rays can be easily assessed on the basis of recent models, assessments of the dose rate during strong solar particle events (SEPs) is complicated and requires sophisticated models. Of specific interest are SEPs with energy reaching a few GeV/nucleon, which produce an atmospheric cascade registered by ground-based detectors, e.g., neutron monitors (NMs). Such events, known as ground level enhancements (GLEs), can significantly enhance the radiation exposure at flight altitudes over the polar regions. A recent upgrade of the International GLE database (http://gle.oulu.fi) now provides not only information of NM count rates around the globe during GLEs, but also records on the estimated SEP energy/rigidity spectra, the corresponding computed effective doses and the related bibliography. Using this data we computed the maximum effective doses at commercial flight altitude of 35 kft (about 11 km) during several GLEs, employing a recent model for computation of effective dose due to energetic particles. A highly significant correlation between the maximum effective dose rate and the NM count increase during GLEs is observed. Here we propose to use the NM maximal increase as a quick proxy to assess the effective dose at flight altitude during strong solar particle events.

Speaker: Aleksandar Mishev (University of Oulu)
• 09:30
Long-term evolution of the features of energetic magnetospheric electron precipitation 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

Precipitation of magnetospheric electrons with energies of ~0.3-1 MeV is observed in the atmosphere at Murmansk region since 1961 up to now. Precipitation events are of so called band type and are associated with the high-speed solar wind flows. Typically, they occur during the main and recovery phases of geomagnetic storms. In total, more than 500 events of precipitation were recorded. We have found a trend in the annual rates of precipitation which resulted in significant growth of event number from 1960s to 2010s.No such a trend is available in the solar activity or geomagnetic disturbances. Features of the observed precipitation are analyzed with a purpose to find changes on the long-term base.

Speaker: Prof. Galina Bazilevskaya (Lebedev Physical Institute)
• 09:45
Remote observation of continuous glow of the night-time atmosphere during thunderstorms and analysis of high-altitude electrical field dynamics according to the data on cosmic ray variations 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

Remote digital video cameras observe from a large distance the night glow during thunderstorms high above the Baksan Neutrino Observatory, where variations of cosmic rays are recorded by the Carpet air shower array. The method of observation and analysis is described, and evidence for correlations of the high-altitude glow with variations of cosmic ray flux and global disturbances of the geomagnetic field is presented. Examples of the influence of seismic activity on thunderstorm dynamics are given.

Speaker: Alexander Lidvansky (Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences)
• 10:00
Study of low-energy background variations in the LVD underground experiment 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

The Large Volume Detector at the Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS) has been working from 1992 on the program to search for neutrino bursts from stellar core collapses, to study cosmic rays penetrating component and background sources in the time of rare events detection. The analysis of the low-energy background (E> 0.5 MeV) in the underground LVD experiment is presented.

Speaker: Mr. Vsevolod Ashikhmin (INR RAS)
• 10:15
Coffee-Break 15m
• 10:30
Response of the PRISMA-YBJ detectors to earthquakes 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

Some interesting results were obtained with the array of EN-detectors (electron- neutron detectors) developed in the frame of the PRISMA (PRImary Spectrum Measurement Array) project for extensive air showers (EAS) detection. Our 4-EN-detector array (PRISMA-YBJ) running on the Earth surface at 4300 m a.s.l. was continuously measuring environmental thermal neutron flux. Neutrons are partially produced through (α,n)-reactions in soil by radioactive gas radon and its daughters decays. Then neutrons thermalized in media and, being in equilibrium with it, are sensitive to many geophysical phenomena including earthquakes. Some results obtained in this experiment are presented, showing sensitivity of the EN-detectors to near earthquakes.

Speaker: Yuri Stenkin (INR RAS)
• 10:45
Solar energetic particles effect on the atmospheric electric field 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

The AFINSA network (Atmospheric Electric Field Network in South America) is composed of eight electric field mill sensors installed in Brazil, Argentina and Peru. AFINSA provides continuous measurements of the atmospheric electric field (AEF). The main objective of the network is to obtain AEF daily curve under fair weather conditions, which we consider as our standard curve. We pretend to study deviations of the daily observations from the standard curve during several geophysical phenomena. In this paper, we investigate solar energetic particles effects on the AEF recorded in one of AFINSA’s sensors (CASLEO, Lat. 31.798°S, Long. 69.295°W, Altitude: 2552 masl). AEF data corresponds to the period between January 2010-December 2015 when 15 SEP events occurred. To enhance possible small effects, a superimposed epoch analysis was used. We find a clear increase of about 10 V/m on the AEF records. In addition, for a single-case study, we show the deviations of the AEF values during an intense Forbush decrease. We discuss these results in terms of the electrical conductivity of the Earth ‘s atmosphere and its time variability.

Speaker: Dr. Vladimir Makhmutov (Lebedev Physical Institute)
• 11:00
The BSUIN project 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

Baltic Sea Underground Innovation Network (BSUIN) is an EU-funded project that extends capabilities of underground laboratories. We enhance innovations, development, business opportunities and research possibilities in underground facilities and network them in the Baltic Sea region.
The description of the BSUIN project and the first results of characterisation of natural radioactive background in underground laboratories will be presented.

Speaker: Dr. Karol Jędrzejczak (Natonal Center for Nuclear Research (NCBJ))
• 11:15
Monte Carlo Radiation Dose Calculations in Geospace 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

Aviation crews and astronauts are constantly exposed to the dangerous ionizing space radiation, in the form of solar energetic particles and galactic cosmic rays, which propagate through the interplanetary medium and the Earth’s atmosphere creating showers of secondary particles. This may lead to many biological damages, such as acute effects (nausea, vomiting, fatigue, central nervous system disease) and chronic effects (cancer, solid tumors, leukemia, cataract, vision impairment, degenerative cardiac disease). Therefore the study of the secondary cascaded are of great importance for the minimization of the exposure risk and it can be of special interest not only for the aircrews, but for the passengers and the civil aviation legislators as well.
DYASTIMA (Dynamic Atmospheric Shower Tracking Interactive Model Application) is a software application, based on Geant 4, that provides a Monte Carlo simulation of the secondary cascades of galactic or solar origin in the atmospheric layers, providing all the necessary information about about the number, the energy, the direction and the arrival time of the secondary particles at different atmospheric layers. Moreover, the extension DYASTIMA-R can be used for the calculation of the dose rate and the equivalent dose rate for various types of particles at flight altitudes. The phases of solar activity, as well as the aircraft geometry and shielding materials, are taken into account, making possible the study of many flight scenarios.
DYASTIMA is provided through the Athens Neutron Monitor Station portal (http://cosray.phys.uoa.gr/index.php/dyastima).

Speaker: Ms. Anastasia Tezari ( 1. Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Faculty of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece 2. Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece)
• 11:30
High-energy atmospheric muon flux calculations in comparison with recent measurements 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

We calculate the atmospheric muon spectrum in the energy range 10 GeV-10 PeV using the hadronic models Kimel & Mokhov, QGSJET-II, SIBYLL 2.1, EPOS LHC, in combination with known parameterizations of the cosmic ray spectrum by Zatsepin & Sokolskaya and Hillas & Gaisser. Calculations agree with recent IceCube and IceTop measurements of the high-energy atmospheric muon flux. The prompt muon contribution, calculated with use of the “optimistic”, quark-gluon string model (E. Bugaev et al. 1989), is compatible with above data up to PeV region. However in case of using an updated version of the QGSM (Sinegovsky & Sorokovikov, 2017) or different models of the charm production, which predict the appreciably lower prompt lepton flux (more preferable in light of IceCube measurements of atmospheric neutrinos), we find that an additional contribution to the prompt muon component is required to describe the IceCube & IceTop muon measured spectra. This component presumably originates from rare decay modes of the short-lived unflavored mesons ($\eta$, $\eta^\prime$, $\rho$, $\omega$, $\phi$) which might ensure the competing contribution to the high-energy atmospheric muon flux.

Speakers: Ms. Anna Morozova (Lomonosov Moscow State University), Prof. Sergei Sinegovsky (Irkutsk State University & Joint Institute for Nuclear Research)
• 09:00 11:45
Future measurements of cosmic rays: new instrumentations and methods ASU Library

### ASU Library

#### Altai State University

• 09:00
Results from the first experiments of the JEM-EUSO program 15m ASU Library

### ASU Library

#### Altai State University

The origin and nature of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) remain unsolved in contemporary astroparticle physics. To give an answer to these questions is rather challenging because of the extremely low flux of a few per km^2 per century at extreme energies such as E > 5 × 10^19eV.
The objective of the JEM-EUSO program, Extreme Universe Space Observatory, is the realization of a space mission devoted to scientific research of cosmic rays of highest energies. Its super-wide-field telescope will look down from space onto the night sky to detect UV photons emitted from air showers generated by UHECRs in the atmosphere.
The JEM-EUSO program includes different experiments using fluorescence detectors to make a proof-of-principle of the UHECR observation from space and to raise the technological level of the instrumentation to be employed in a space mission.
EUSO-TA, installed at the Telescope Array site in Utah in 2013, is in operation. It has already detected 9 UHECRs in coincidence with Telescope Array fluorescence detector at Black Rock Mesa.
EUSO-Balloon flew on board a stratospheric balloon in August 2014. It measured the UV intensity on forests, lakes and the city of Timmins as well as proved the observation of UHECR-like events by shooting laser tracks.
EUSO-SPB was launched on board a super pressure balloon on April 25th and flew for 12 days. It proved the functionality of all the subsystems of the telescope on a long term; observed the UV emission on oceans and has a self-trigger system to observe UHECRs with energy E > 3x10^18 eV.
TUS, the Russian mission on board the Lomonosov satellite in orbit since April 28th 2016, is now included in the JEM-EUSO program and has detected so far in the UHECR trigger-mode a few interesting signals.
Mini-EUSO is in its final phase of integration in Italy, where several performance tests are being held. Mini-EUSO will be installed inside the International Space Station (ISS) in late 2018 or early 2019.
During this contribution I will summarize the main results obtained so far by such experiments and put them in prospect of future space detectors such as K-EUSO and POEMMA.

Speaker: Prof. Mario Bertaina (Univ. Torino & INFN Torino)
• 09:15
Future space-based GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope for the gamma- and cosmic-ray studies 15m ASU Library

### ASU Library

#### Altai State University

Future space-based GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope will operate aboard Russian astrophysical observatory in the highly elliptic orbit during 7-10 years to observe some regions of the Universe uninterruptedly for a long time (~100 days) and measure gamma- and cosmic-ray fluxes. GAMMA-400 will have the unprecedented angular (~0.01° at Eγ = 100 GeV) and energy (~1% at Eγ = 100 GeV) resolutions better than the Fermi-LAT, as well as ground gamma-ray telescopes, by a factor of 5-10. Excellent separation of gamma rays from cosmic-ray background and electron + positrons from protons will allow us to measure gamma rays in the energy range from ~20 MeV to several TeV and electrons + positrons up to ~20 TeV. GAMMA-400 observations will provide new clarifying data on gamma- and cosmic-ray sources and spectra.

Speaker: Nikolay Topchiev (Lebedev Physical Institute)
• 09:30
Detector developments for a hybrid particle and radio detector 15m ASU Library

### ASU Library

#### Altai State University

Large-scale air-shower arrays could profit from a radio sub-detector as the radio emission during air showers is sensitive to the electromagnetic component. E.g. using hybrid particle and radio detectors at the IceCube site would not only improve the veto capabilities of IceTop but would also enable the enhanced measurement and reconstruction of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) induced by cosmic rays. Especially with an array of radio antennas in combination with particle detectors, highly inclined EAS can be detected. This gives rise to new science cases, e.g. the search for PeV gamma rays coming from the Galactic Center which is visible from the IceCube site all over the year at an inclination of 61°. A scintillation based particle-detector with Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) read-out has been developed and test measurements with a prototype radio antenna are ongoing.
This talk will focus on the hardware development of the hybrid detector including the SiPM characterization and read-out as well as tests with the radio antenna in combined measurements. Concepts of a DAQ for a hybrid particle and radio detector will be presented and recent results of a test array consisting of four antennas and two different particle detector arrays will be shown.

Speaker: Mr. Max Renschler (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology)
• 09:45
Ultra high energy cosmic ray detector KLYPVE-EUSO on board the International Space Station 15m ASU Library

### ASU Library

#### Altai State University

KLYPVE-EUSO is a mission led by the Russian Space Agency to place an ultra-high energy cosmic ray observatory on board the Russian Segment (RS) of the ISS. The concept of the detector is based on the mirror-type detector proposed by SINP MSU in 2010 as a development of the TUS project. KLYPVE-EUSO concept was recently improved by the joint studies of SINP MSU and the JEM-EUSO collaboration. A new version of the detector takes into account the experience of the TUS detector measurements, the JEM-EUSO previous developments and recent achievements in optics simulations, electronics manufacturing and data processing system design. The current configuration is based on a Schmidt type optical system with the diameter of the entrance pupil of 2.5 m and the diameter of the main mirror of 4 m. This allows increasing the field of view of the detector to 40 degrees and makes the experiment competitive compared with large ground based observatories, with the advantage of a uniform exposure over the whole celestial sphere. A modular structure of the photo detector, the same as for the JEM-EUSO concept, is used in the K-EUSO project with a new type of digital electronics based of the system-on-chip FPGA. The launch of the experiment is scheduled to 2022 followed by installation on the RS of the ISS and at least two years of operation.

Speaker: Pavel Klimov (SINP MSU)
• 10:00
The current status of the NUCLEON-2 mission 15m ASU Library

### ASU Library

#### Altai State University

The NUCLEON-2 experiment is aimed at the investigation of isotope and charge composition of medium, heavy and ultra-heavy ions (Z < 82) in the 300 MeV/N - 1 GeV/N energy range. The concept design of HICRS for the NUCLEON-2 satellite cosmic ray experiment is presented. The performed simulation confirms the isotope resolution algorithms and techniques.

Speaker: Mr. Alexander Kurganov (SINP MSU)
• 10:15
Coffee-Break 15m
• 10:30
Combining heterogeneous air-shower data in the frame of Russian-German Astroparticle Data Life Cycle Initiative 15m ASU Library

### ASU Library

#### Altai State University

Challenges emerging in modern astroparticle research demand acquisition and analysis of large amounts of experimental data. Besides multi-messenger approach, which uses different channels of observing the Universe, it is important to learn how to combine measurements for the various experiments exploiting the same channel. One can benefit from this combination by increasing the statistics as well as multicomponent investigation of air-showers. We make the first steps in this direction within the Russian-German Initiative dedicated to Astroparticle Data Life Cycle, which has been started in 2018. In frame of this initiative we plan to implement storage for heterogeneous astroparticle data with possibility of joint selection and analysis of data from different experiments. To query and join air-shower measurements containing diverse observables (e.g. secondary particles, Cherenkov light, radio) and their derivatives (e.g. energy, shower maximum, type of particle) we develop special formalism for mapping these observables from different air-shower experiments to the unified parameter space. In the present work we discuss the current status of this study and show the first results based on combination of KASCADE-Grande and Tunka data.

Speaker: Dmitriy Kostunin (KIT)
• 10:45
Status of the Lunar Detection Mode for Cosmic Particles of LOFAR 15m ASU Library

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#### Altai State University

effect. If the resulting radio ns-pulse can be detected by radio telescopes,
this technique potentially increases the available collective area for ZeV
scale particles by several orders of magnitude compared to current experiments.
The LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) is the largest radio telescope operating in the
optimum frequency regime for this technique. In this contribution, we report
on the status of the implementation of the lunar detection mode at LOFAR.

Speaker: Tobias Winchen (Vrije Universiteit Brussel)
• 11:00
THE HERO (High Energy Ray Observatory) current status 15m ASU Library

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#### Altai State University

Current status and preliminary design of the High-Energy Ray Observatory (HERO) are presented. The HERO is planned to be launched onboard a heavy satellite. This experiment is based on the application of a deep and wide aperture ionization calorimeter. The effective geometrical factor of the observatory is at least 9-16 m^2*sr, depending on the type of particles. Under the long exposure, this mission will allow to solve the most actual problems of high energy astrophysics by direct investigation of the cosmic rays with energies up to 10^17 eV.

Speaker: Dr. Dmitry Podorozhny ( Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP MSU))
• 11:15
Study of mass composition of cosmic rays in 10^15-10^17 eV region with PRISMA project 15m ASU Library

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#### Altai State University

The PRISMA project proposed some years ago, deals with a unique array capable to simultaneously measure two main components of extensive air showers: electromagnetic and hadronic ones over the whole array area. Up to date we had in operation two prototypes at significantly different altitudes and analyzed their data. The full-scale array (PRISMA-LHAASO) is now under construction in Tibet. A novel method for mass composition study in PeV region based on electron/neutron components ratio was developed with using of novel techniques of machine learning (ML) data analysis. Efficiency of the method and different ML technique for chemical composition analysis and for gamma-ray induced showers separation is presented using the simulation of 64 detectors array being the first stage of the PRISMA-LHAASO as an example.

Speaker: Oleg Shchegolev (Institute for Nuclear Research Russian Academy of Sciences)
• 11:30
RFI filtering in the Auger Engineering Radio Array 15m ASU Library

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#### Altai State University

The emission of radio waves from Extensive Air Showers (EAS), initiated by ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays, has been attributed to geomagnetic emission and charge excess processes. At frequencies from 10 to 100 MHz this process leads to coherent radiation. Nowadays, the radio detection technique is used in many experiments consisting in studying EAS. One of them is the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA), located at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The frequency band observed by the AERA radio stations is 30-80 MHz. This investigated frequency range is often highly contaminated by human-made and narrow-band radio frequency interferences (RFI). The suppression of this contamination is crucial to lower the rate of spurious triggers.

The paper presents the filter currently in use and proposed:

A. filters currently in use

1) an adaptive filter based on the FFT and median filter in the frequency domain. The filter converts ADC data from the time domain to the frequency domain using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) routine provided by Altera. These peaks are removed in the frequency domain by a median filter. With the second, inverse FFT (iFFT), signals are converted back to the time domain. This filter was used in the first radio stations in Cyclone III EP3C80F780C6. It required an implementation of FFT and iFFT power-consuming Mega-Functions and tricks related to aliasing removal. The sampling frequency in ADCs was limited to 180 MHz, which corresponded to only 90 MHz spectrum cut-off according to the Nyquist theorem

The adaptive FFT-Median-iFFT filter was replaced by the non-adaptive IIR notch filter in the next generation of electronics. Adaptive filters allowing an RFI suppression independently of the frequencies of the contamination, are more flexible than non-adaptive filters with fixed parameters usually tuned for the local transmitter frequencies. Such a solution is efficient: however, it cannot react to any additional RFI sources.

2a) IIR non-adaptive filter with fixed coefficients, which suppress four narrow bands. IIR filters are much simpler and power efficient than FIR filters. However, they are generally potentially unstable due to feedbacks. Fixed frequencies, in the AERA IIR filter currently in use, have been selected by investigations of the EM spectrum on the Argentinean pampas in the AERA research region. Coefficients calculated in an external C program have been implemented into the FPGA code as constants. If the frequencies of the contaminations are stable (e.g., correspond to short-wave transmitter carriers) a non-adaptive filter is extremely efficient. However, if the frequencies of contamination do not match the IIR coefficients, the IIR filter is practically useless: the output signals are approximately the same as the input ones.

B. filters already tested in Argentinean pampas

3a) with FIR coefficients calculated in an external ARM processor. This cheap solution uses the existing micro-controller used for the radio station management. However, data exchange between the FPGA and the micro-controller significantly slow downs the operational speed and increases the refresh time of the filter coefficients. The refresh time (~2 s for this filter) is a crucial parameter for quickly fluctuating environmental radio contaminations. The filter coefficients should be updated as fast as possible to follow the contamination changes. During calculations of a new set of coefficients, the filter is “blind” to any occurring changes. This may affect the signal that is the object of detection.

3b) FIR filter supported by the NIOS processor reduces the refresh time to ~600 ms for 32 FIR stages. The NIOS processor needs to solve 32 linear equations in the FPGA. The representation of floating point variables as double provides the same precision as Microsoft Visual C++. This filter was tested in real Argentinean pampas conditions and proved its efficiency and stability.

C. proposed filters

2b) A non-adaptive IIR notch filter has been additionally equipped with the embedded NIOS processor inside the FPGA, calculating the filter coefficients based on the current environmental conditions, providing an adaptive version of the filter. The IIR-notch filter supported by the NIOS internal processor allows refreshing the IIR coefficients every few seconds. As the NIOS processor is relatively power efficient, this filter could adapt itself to changing environmental parameters.
The currently used IIR-filters are a cascade of four sub-filters each tuned to a fixed frequency. If the new fifth ”carrier” appears, only four sub-filters would suppress the RFI (assumed the strongest). Simulations show that a more efficient approach is the suppression of all potential frequency peaks, even if the suppression factor is less than for a fixed IIR-notch solution.
This type of suppression was processed in the FIR filters 3a) and 3b) already tested in the field.

3c) In order to reduce the refresh time the Hardcore Processing System (HPS) inside the FPGA was tested on the development kit with Cyclone V SX SoC5CSXFC6D6F31C6N. A hardware implementation of the micro-controller allows a reduction of the refresh time to only ~20 ms.

3d) A linear prediction method based on the autocovariance matrix calculated from ADC samples. The matrix is of Toeplitz type. Linear equations with a Toeplitz matrix can be solved by much the faster Levinson procedure instead of relatively slow Gaussian elimination. The algorithm of solving 32 linear equations based on the Levinson procedure has been implemented directly in the FPGA fabric. 32 linear equations are solved using 64-bit floating-point Altera FPGA Mega-functions. The refresh time has been reduced to only ~600 microseconds. Splitting the processes for parallel processing improves the calculation efficiency and reduces the refresh time. However, it increases the power consumption, a crucial factor for applications supplied from solar panels. This variant will be tested in the field, especially in seriously contaminated regions. Calculating a set of new coefficients always needs a relatively long interval. A much smarter approach is to correct the existing coefficients in each clock cycle by a procedure of the sigma-delta type. One of the filters has been already tested.

4) An adaptive filter based on the normalized LMS (NLMS) algorithm with the canonical FIR section

Speaker: Prof. Zbigniew Szadkowski (University of Lodz)
• 09:00 11:45
UHE cosmic rays (E>10¹⁷) Academic Council Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

• 09:00
Radio emission measurement at 30-35 MHz at the Yakutsk complex extensive air shower array simulation 15m Academic Council Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

At the Yakutsk array in addition to electron, muon and Cherenkov light measurements air shower radio emission registration is carried out. Energy E0 is determined by the amplitude at 350 m distance from the axis. Depth of maximum Xmax is determined by ratio of amplitudes at 80 and 200 m.
In the paper, the Monte-Carlo method was used to simulate air showers radio emission measurements. Electronic fluctuations of the radio channel, axis and zenith angle determination uncertainty were taken into account.
Based on simulation results, estimation accuracy of E0 and Xmax were obtained. These estimations are consistent with similar results obtained at the Yakutsk array by energy balance method and Xmax reconstruction method by Cherenkov light data.

Speaker: Mr. Igor Petrov (Yu.G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy)
• 09:15
Results of extreme energy cosmic rays measurements  by the TUS detector on board the Lomonosov satellite. 15m Academic Council Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

TUS (Tracking Ultraviolet Set-up) is the first orbital detector of extreme energy cosmic rays. It was launched into orbit on April 28, 2016, as a part of the scientific payload of the Lomonosov satellite. The main aim of the mission is to test the technique of measuring UV fluorescent and Cherenkov radiation of extensive air showers (EAS) generated by primary cosmic rays with energies above 50 EeV. The TUS detector is a UV telescope with 2 m$^2$ mirror and ±4.5° field of view. During more than a year of operation a number of EAS-like events were measured by the detector. We report results of a search for EAS-like events in the TUS data and their analysis, including a strong EECR candidate registered on October 3, 2016. Primary particle parameters, such as arrival direction and energy were estimated. Conditions of the measurements were studied to exclude thunderstorm atmospheric events. Results of the EECR candidate event analysis are presented and discussed.

Speaker: Pavel Klimov (SINP MSU)
• 09:30
Method of EAS`s Cherenkov and fluorescent light separation using silicon photomultipliers. 15m Academic Council Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

The preliminary results of method investigation of separation the Cerenkov (CL) and fluorescence (FL) light of EAS are shown. The results are based on measurements of the attenuation coefficients of the CL and FL at different filters. A total of six optical filters were investigated: filters from optical glass UFS-1, UFS-5, FS6 (BG3) and interference filters SL 360\50, SL 280-380, FF01-375/110. The measurements were performed using silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). To improve existing fluorescent light detectors, a segment of 7 SiPM was developed, which will be able to separate both components of the light flux from the EAS at the level of primary data processing. In addition, the results of simulating the response of a realistic detector from the EAS for estimating the efficiency of the method of separating CL and FL from model events with an energy of 100 PeV are presented.

Speaker: Dmitry Chernov (Moscow State University)
• 09:45
Precise reconstruction of the shower maximum with Tunka-Rex 15m Academic Council Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

Tunka-Rex is an antenna array located in the Tunka Valley, which measures the radio emission of cosmic-ray air showers with energies up to EeV.
It is triggered by the Tunka-133 air-Cherenkov detector (during nights) and by Tunka-Grande scintillators measuring secondary particles from air-showers.
In the present work we show a method for more precise reconstruction of the shower maximum using radio measurements from Tunka-Rex.
To reconstruct the mean depth of shower maximum and further the mass composition as a function of energy, one has to understand the efficiency and systematic uncertainties of the detector.
We have developed model of the detector efficiency, which takes into account various parameters: energy and the possible mass range of the primary particles, the geometry of the air-shower and the detector configuration.
Although the atmosphere is transparent for MHz radio, the fluctuations of the refractive index impact the reconstruction of the shower maximum.
To estimate the uncertainty given by atmosphere we will use information provided by GDAS and compare it with our model assumptions.
As a result the mean of shower maximum as a function of primary energy is produced.
In the present work we discuss the obtained results and future prospects of mass composition studies by the combination of radio measurements from Tunka-Rex and muon information from Tunka-Grande.

Speaker: Pavel Bezyazeekov
• 10:00
Radio detection of cosmic rays at the Pierre Auger Observatory 15m Academic Council Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

In recent years the radio detection of extensive air showers has been established as a standard tool to measure the properties (direction, energy, particle type) of high-energy cosmic rays. At the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina, air showers are registered with multiple techniques. Among others, a 17 km2 radio array (AERA) is used to measure the radio emission from air showers in the frequency range from 30 to 80 MHz.

In this presentation we give an overview on recent activities and latest results, including calibration procedures, methods and accuracies to reconstruct air showers and derive energy and particle mass from it. We will give an update on the method to establish an energy scale for air-shower measurements, based on the radio technique. And we will outline the potential of the radio technique for a possible application on very large scales.

Speaker: Jörg Hörandel (Radboud University Nijmegen)
• 10:15
Coffee-Break 15m
• 10:30

#### Altai State University

Radio galaxies are intensively discussed as the sources of cosmic rays observed above about $3\,{\times}\,10^{18}\,\text{eV}$, called ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs).
The talk presents a first, systematic study that takes the individual characteristics of these sources into account, as well as the impact of the extragalactic magnetic-field structures up to a distance of 120 Mpc.

It will be shown that the average contribution of radio galaxies taken over a very large volume cannot explain the observed features of UHECRs measured at Earth. However, an excellent agreement with the spectrum, composition, and arrival-direction distribution of UHECRs measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory is obtained by the contribution from only two sources: The ultra-luminous radio galaxy Cygnus A, providing a mostly light composition of nuclear species dominating up to about $6\,{\times}\,10^{19}\,$eV, and the nearest radio galaxy Centaurus A, providing a heavy composition dominating above $6\,{\times}\,10^{19}\,$eV. Here we have to assume that extragalactic magnetic fields out to $250\,$Mpc, which we did not include in the simulation, are able to isotropize the UHECR events at about $8\,$EeV arriving from Cygnus A. Even in this case, significant anisotropy correlated with Cygnus A and Centaurus A could be present at higher energies, and thus allow for differences in UHECR spectrum and composition between the northern and southern hemispheres.
If this scenario can be confirmed, it would also imply that the UHECR flux in our local cosmic environment is significantly above the average throughout the universe.

Speaker: Björn Eichmann
• 10:45
Summary of Results from the Telescope Array Experiment 15m Academic Council Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

The Telescope Array (TA) is the largest experiment in the Northern Hemisphere, it comprises 507 plastic scintillator counters forming surface detector (SD) array that covers 700 km^2 and three fluorescence stations (FD) observing them. TA are collecting data for 10 years since May 2008. We present the overview of the experiment and obtained results: the cosmic ray spectra in a range of energies from 10^(15.5) eV to over 10^20 EeV from both TA and its low energy extension (TALE), mass composition, and results of the search for arrival anisotropy at different angular scales. Finally, we will discuss the status and perspectives of the latest TAx4 experiment, which will increase the effective area fourfold.

Speaker: Maxim Pshirkov (SAI MSU)
• 11:00
New energy estimates of inclined showers in terms of the EPOS LHC and QGSJETII-04 models 15m Academic Council Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

A new method of energy estimation of inclined extensive air showers with help of signals in the surface scintillation detectors located at a distance of 600 m from the shower core at the Yakutsk extensive air showers array is proposed. Various models of hadron interaction used in this estimation have been tested with help of the atmospheric muon spectra. It was shown that the calculated muon spectrum for the EPOS LHC and QGSJETII-04 models differ not much from the experimental data. It was shown for the first time that the energy spectrum of the primary cosmic radiation measured at the Yakutsk array in terms of these new estimates is consistent with the world data.

Speaker: Mr. Anton Lukyashin (ITEP/MEPhI)
• 11:15
Current status of the CODALEMA/EXTASIS experiments 15m Academic Council Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

Secondary electrons and positrons of air showers emit a coherent radio electric field in a wide frequency band.
The CODALEMA experiment installed at the Nançay radioastronomy observatory since 2002 detects air showers and the associated electric field in [20;200] MHz.
EXTASIS, triggered by the CODALEMA scintillators, detects since 2016 the air shower electric field in [1;6] MHz. We also expect an aditionnal signal at low frequency: the sudden death pulse, corresponding to the sudden disappearance of the shower front particles when they reach the ground level.
We will present the instrumental setups and their performances.

Speaker: Benoît Revenu
• 11:30
Measuring the depth of shower maximum at the Pierre Auger Observatory and implications on composition above 10^17.2 eV. 15m Academic Council Conference Hall

#### Altai State University

By directly observing the atmospheric development of air-showers, the Pierre Auger Observatory is able to extract the depth of maximum ($X_{max}$) on a shower-by-shower basis. With the addition of the High Elevation Auger Telescopes, these profile measurements are now made in an extended energy range of $[10^{17.2}, 10^{19.6})$\,eV. These individual $X_{max}$ values have been combined to obtain the $X_{max}$ distributions as a function of energy. By correcting for atmospheric and geometric acceptance biases, the first two moments of the $X_{max}$ distributions are extracted and used to infer $\langle \ln{A} \rangle$. Using post-LHC hadronic models, the $X_{max}$ distributions are fitted to four elemental groups (p, He, N and Fe) to estimate composition fractions. Regardless of the hadronic model used, the flux at all energies is best described as a mix of light, intermediate and heavy primaries. All models also show the proton fraction peaking around the ankle before decreasing significantly with energy. Additionally, iron nuclei are shown to be disfavored except as a minor component at the lowest energies.

Speaker: Dr. Eric Mayotte (Bergische Universität Wuppertal)
• 11:45 13:00
Lunch 1h 15m
• 13:00 17:00
Transfer to Belokurikha 4h
• 19:00 21:00
Conference Dinner 2h
• Monday, 9 July
• 09:00 11:30
Cosmic rays above the knee (E<10¹⁷): Cosmic Rays above the knee (E<10¹⁷) Main Conference Hall (Belokurikha)

### Main Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

• 09:00
Low energy neutron and gamma ray signal from extensive air showers in the knee region of the primary cosmic ray spectrum 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

We present phenomenological data on the neutron component of 0.1-100 PeV extensive air showers which have been obtained with shower installation of the Tien~Shan mountain cosmic ray station during the years 2015-2018. The total multiplicity, as well as lateral and temporal distributions of neutron signal were registered in the thermal, epithermal, and intermediate ranges of neutron energy, and at various distances from shower axis. Together with neutron data, it was obtained similar distribution of the intensity of low-energy (0.1-1) MeV gamma radiation which might be due to multiple capture of evaporation neutrons by atomic nuclei in surrounding environment.

Speaker: Alexander Shepetov (P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (LPI))
• 09:15
The underground neutron events at Tien Shan 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

Numerous events of still unclear nature with multiple neutron production have been observed regularly during continuous 7 year long exposition period at the underground neutron detector complex of Tien Shan mountain cosmic ray station. Detector is situated at the altitude of 3340 m above the sea level, and beneath a 2000 g/cm$^2$ thick rock absorber. In this message we report the following investigation results: annual variation of the rate of underground neutron events registration; the neutron multiplicity and corresponding hadron energy deposits spectra of these events; the correlation of underground events with the passages of extensive air showers overhead. The data presented are given in comparison with the results of a Geant4 based simulation of cosmic ray particles propagation through the soil, and of their interaction with the neutron detector material.

Speaker: Alexander Shepetov (P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (LPI))
• 09:30
Cosmic ray arrival direction in the energy range 3∙10^15 – 5∙10^17 eV analysis by Small Cherenkov Array data at the Yakutsk. 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

Analysis of air shower event distribution by inclination α and direct ascension δ in the energy range 3∙10^15 – 5∙10^17 eV registered at the Small Cherenkov Array in 20 years period is carried out. The goal of the analysis: search of local regions of increased flux of cosmic rays and matching it with astrophysical sources such as supernovae remnants and gamma-pulsars.

Speaker: Dr. Stanislav Knurenko (Yu.G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research)
• 09:45
Multicomponent registration of the EAS 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

The experimental complex NEVOD created in the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) includes several facilities for the study of different EAS components in the cosmic ray energy range from 1 PeV to 1 EeV. This paper describes the results of half a year joint operation of three setups: NEVOD-EAS, CTS and DECOR. NEVOD-EAS with a multi-level arrangement of scintillation detectors is used to determine the parameters of the detected EAS in the energy range from 1 to 100 PeV. The muon component in the energy range of primary particles from 1 to 1000 PeV is recorded with a high angular accuracy (about 1 degree) by means of the coordinate-tracking detector DECOR. The calibration telescope system (CTS) measures the density of the electron (0.1 – 1 PeV) and muon (10 – 1000 PeV) components simultaneously. The issues of the setup synchronization and efficiency of joint events selection are considered. The analysis of the experimental data of these facilities on various EAS components in the intersecting energy ranges is presented.

Speaker: Mikhail Amelchakov (National Research Nuclear University MEPhI)
• 10:00
Spatial and temporal structure of reflected Cherenkov light signal as seen by the SPHERE-2 telescope 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

We consider spatial and temporal characteristics of optical Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation (“Cherenkov light”, CL) reflected from the snow surface of Lake Baikal, as registered by the SPHERE-2 detector. We perform detailed full direct Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of EAS development and present a new version of a dedicated highly modular code intended for detector response simulations with account for realistic instrumental thresholds in every measurement channel, as well as noise. Detector response properties are illustrated by example of several model EAS events. The instrumental acceptance of the SPHERE-2 detector was calculated for a range of observation conditions. We introduce and discuss the concept of “composite model quantities”, calculated for detector responses averaged over photoelectron count fluctuations, but retaining EAS development fluctuations. The distortions of EAS CL lateral distribution function (LDF) introduced by the SPHERE-2 telescope are understood by comparing composite model LDF with the corresponding function as would be recorded by an ideal detector situated at the ground surface. Finally, we compare the reflected CL method with other experimental techniques and briefly discuss its prospects.

Speakers: Mr. Timur Dzhatdoev (Moscow State University), Elena Bonvech (Moscow State University), Dmitry Chernov (Moscow State University)
• 10:15
Coffee-Break 15m
• 10:30
Cosmic Ray Physics with the LOFAR Radio Telescope 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

The LOFAR radio telescopes is able to measure the radio emission from cosmic
ray induced air showers with hundreds of individual antennas. This allows
precision tests of the emission mechanisms for the radio signal as well as
determination of the depth of shower maximum $X_\max$, the shower observable
most sensitive to the mass of the primary cosmic ray, to better than 20
g/cm$^2$. With a densely instrumented circular area of roughly 320 m$^2$,
LOFAR is targeting for the cosmic ray astrophysics in the energy range
$10^{16}$ to $10^{18}$ eV. In this contribution we give an overview of the
status, recent results, and future plans of cosmic ray detection with the LOFAR

Speaker: Tobias Winchen (Vrije Universiteit Brussel)
• 10:45
ON THE COSMIC RAY ENERGY SPECTRUM “KNEES” 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

Primary cosmic ray energy spectrum around and above 1PeV is of great interest due to its non-power law behavior found many years ago using secondary method - EAS (Extensive Air Shower) method. The method is based on secondary particles measuring on Earth’s surface under a thick atmosphere. Traditionally people use detectors sensitive to ionization produced mostly by electromagnetic component and so called “knee” was found for EAS size spectrum many years ago and later it was assigned to steepening of cosmic ray proton spectrum at 3-5 PeV. Recently some new “knees” were claimed by high altitude experiments for primary protons and Helium: at ~200-300 TeV (Tibet AS) and at ~700 TeV (ARGO-YBJ) thus widening the “knee” region from ~0.2 to 3 PeV and demonstrating disagreement in existing experimental data. The natural explanation of such a strange spectrum behavior can be found in the phenomenological approach to the knee problem.

Speaker: Yuri Stenkin (INR RAS)
• 11:00
Possible explanations of results of CR investigations in the energy interval 10^15 - 10^17 eV: Nuclear-physical approach 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

During the last 60 years many various interesting features in the energy spectrum and mass composition behavior in the energy region $10^{15} - 10^{17}$ eV were found. But unfortunately neither energy, nor mass of primary particles can be measured directly in this energy region. And all results were obtained from results of EAS component measurements and their interpretation on the basis of different models. Besides, various unusual events in this energy region were observed (alignments, Centauros, penetrating cascades, and others). In this talk, the nuclear-physical approach which allows explain not only the energy spectrum and mass composition behavior but also appearance of practically all unusual events is considered.

Speaker: A.A. Petrukhin (MEPhI)
• 11:15
Possible explanations of results of CR investigations in the energy interval 1015 - 1017 eV: Cosmophysical approach 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

The origin of the knee in the energy spectrum of cosmic rays is a long-standing question in astroparticle physics. We will give an overview on experimental results and compare them to predictions from astrophysical models. We will discuss implications on the understanding of the origin of cosmic rays.

Speaker: Jörg Hörandel (Radboud University Nijmegen)
• 09:00 11:30
Cosmic rays anisotropy Conference Hall (Belokurikha)

### Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

• 09:00
Updated Measurement of the Full-sky Anisotropy of Cosmic Rays with IceCube and HAWC 15m Conference Hall

### Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

We present updated results on the joint analysis of the arrival direction distribution of Galactic cosmic rays by the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory (located at 19$^\circ$ N) and the IceCube Neutrino Observatory (located at 90$^\circ$ S). We describe the methods used to combine the IceCube and HAWC data, including an improved reconstruction method that can recover the amplitude of large-scale angular features that are attenuated by a limited field of view at mid latitudes. We also address the individual detector systematics and study the region of overlapping FoV between the two observatories. The combined analysis eliminates biases introduced by partial sky coverage that result in strong correlations between different multipole modes $C_\ell$. The updated results include a combined sky map and an all-sky angular power spectrum in the overlapping energy range of the two experiments at around 10 TeV for angular scales down to $\sim 15^\circ$ using data collected by the HAWC Observatory and data from the IceCube Observatory.

Speakers: Juan Carlos Díaz Vélez (Universidad de Guadalajara - CUVALLES), Zigfried Hampel-Arias (Universite Libre de Bruxelles)
• 09:15
TeV-PeV Cosmic-Ray Anisotropy and Local Interstellar Turbulence 15m Conference Hall

### Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

The shape of the large-scale cosmic-ray (CR) anisotropy depends on, and therefore contains information on, the local interstellar turbulence within ~ 10 pc from Earth. We calculate the TeV-PeV CR anisotropies predicted for a range of Goldreich-Sridhar (GS) and isotropic models of interstellar turbulence, and compare them with IceTop and IceCube data. The narrow deficits in the 400TeV and 2PeV data sets of IceTop can be fitted with a GS model that contains a smooth deficit of parallel-propagating waves and a broad resonance function, although some other models cannot, as yet, be ruled out. In particular, isotropic fast magnetosonic wave turbulence can match the observations at high energy, but cannot accommodate an energy dependence in the shape of the CR anisotropy. We discuss the impact of possible anisotropies in the power-spectrum of fast modes. Our findings suggest that the data on the large-scale CR anisotropy provides a new probe of the properties of the local turbulence.

Speaker: Gwenael Giacinti (MPIK Heidelberg)
• 09:30
Observation of cosmic ray anisotropy with GRAPES-3 15m Conference Hall

### Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

Large scale anisotropy of galactic cosmic rays in the TeV-PeV energy region has been reported by several experiments located in the Northern Hemisphere as well as the IceCube, and its surface array IceTop at the South Pole. The GRAPES-3 experiment in Ooty, India is designed to observe cosmic rays in the energy range from several TeV to over 10 PeV. Its near-equatorial location (11.4$^{\circ}$N) provides a unique advantage of its observations on cosmic ray anisotropy overlapping with experiments in both the hemisphere. GRAPES-3 consists of a dense array of $\sim$400 scintillator detectors spread over an area of 25000 m$^2$. It also contains a large (560 m$^2$) tracking muon detector which provides an excellent capability to discriminate $\gamma$-rays from cosmic rays. It has recorded over 10 billion showers since its operation began in 2000. The GRAPES-3 had earlier measured cosmic ray anisotropy from data collected during 2000-2006. Here, the results of an analysis with higher statistics and better understanding of various systematics will be presented.

Speaker: Dr. Pravata Mohanty (Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India)
• 09:45
Observations of the Cosmic Ray Anisotropy with the Tibet Air Shower Array 15m Conference Hall

### Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

The large-scale sidereal anisotropy of cosmic rays is observed by Tibet Air Shower Array using the data collected from October, 1995 to February, 2010. Energy dependence of the cosmic-ray anisotropy from 10 − 1000 TeV is analysised. We find that the anisotropy maps above 100 TeV are distinct from that at multi-TeV band. The amplitude of the GCR anisotropy increases sharply above ∼ 100 TeV, indicating a new component of the anisotropy.

Speaker: Dr. Yi Zhang (Ihep)
• 10:00
Puzzles of the Cosmic Ray Anisotropy 15m Conference Hall

### Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

We discuss three puzzles of the cosmic ray anisotropy in PeV and sub-PeV energy region. They are: 1) the so called inverse anisotropy, 2) the irregularity in the energy dependence of the amplitude and phase and 3) the contribution of the single source.

Speaker: Prof. Anatoly Erlykin (P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute)
• 10:15
Coffee-Break 15m
• 10:30
The Anisotropy in the Arrival Directions of Galactic Cosmic Rays: Expectations vs. Observations 15m Conference Hall

### Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

The arrival directions of multi-TeV cosmic rays show significant anisotropies at large and small angular scales. I will argue that these features can be understood from standard cosmic ray diffusion. It is well-known that a large-scale dipole anisotropy is expected from a cosmic ray density gradient following the distribution of Galactic sources. However, the observed anisotropy depends on cosmic ray propagation in our local magnetic environment. The observed dipole amplitude and phase are a result of anisotropic diffusion along the local ordered magnetic field. The small-scale structures, on the other hand, are expected to arise from cosmic ray scattering in local magnetic turbulence.

Speaker: Markus Ahlers (Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen)
• 10:45
Observation of the Cosmic ray Large Scale Anisotropy with the ARGO-YBJ experiment 15m Conference Hall

### Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

This talk report on the observation of sidereal large scale anisotropy (LSA) of cosmic rays with the ARGO-YBJ experiment using data from 2008 to 2012, which covers the period of 24th solar cycle from the minimum to maximum. In this work, we have studied the correlation between solar activity and the LSA below 10 TeV to test the controversy between Milagro and Tibet ASr. We used a new method to improve the energy estimation to extend the observation from 30 TeV in our previous publish to about 500 TeV. The characteristics of the anisotropy and its variation from TeV to 500 TeV are achieved. We also studied the dependence of the LSA on the nature of the primary cosmic rays using two data samples with different elemental composition ratio.

Speaker: Prof. Songzhan Chen (Institute of High Energy Physics(IHEP),CAS)
• 11:00
Imprint of a single source on the cosmic ray anisotropy 15m Conference Hall

### Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

I report on the contribution of a single source to the observed cosmic ray (CR) dipole anisotropy, determined numerically calculating the trajectories of individual CRs. The dipole amplitude in this case depends only on the fraction the source contributes to the total CR intensity, its age and its distance, bit not on the energy. Therefore the observation of a constant dipole anisotropy indicates that a single source dominates the CR flux in the corresponding energy range. A natural explanation for the plateau between 2--20 TeV observed in the CR anisotropy is thus the presence of a single, nearby source. For the source age of 2 Myr, as suggested by the explanation of the antiproton and positron data from PAMELA and AMS-02 through a local source, we determine the source distance as ∼200 pc. Combined with the contribution of the global CR sea calculated in the escape model, we can explain qualitatively the data for the dipole anisotropy. These results suggest that the assumption of a smooth CR source distribution should be abandoned between 200 GeV and 1 PeV.

Speaker: Michael Kachelriess (NTNU)
• 11:15
Observation of cosmic ray anisotropy with Auger and Telescope Array 15m Conference Hall

### Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

The distribution of arrival directions of high-energy cosmic rays is a key observable in attempts to understanding their origin. The dipole and quadrupole moments are of special interest in revealing potential anisotropies. An unambiguous measurement of these moments as well as of the full set of spherical harmonic coefficients requires full-sky coverage. At the highest energies, this can be achieved by combining data recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array. Special attention is given to the relative normalization of the respective energy scales of the experiments by requiring the measured fluxes to be identical in declination ranges where the exposures overlap. The full-sky coverage allows possible structures to stand out from the isotropic background with minimal exposure distortions. From the resulting multipolar expansion of the flux of cosmic rays, a series of anisotropy searches is presented, including searches for correlations with local extragalactic matter.

Speaker: Olivier Deligny (CNRS/IN2P3 IPN Orsay)
• 11:30 12:30
Lunch 1h
• 12:30 19:00
Sightseeing Tour 6h 30m
• Tuesday, 10 July
• 09:00 11:30
HE/UHE gamma rays Conference Hall (Belokurikha)

### Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

• 09:00
e-ASTROGAM: a space mission for MeV-GeV gamma-ray astrophysics 15m Conference Hall

### Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

e-ASTROGAM is a breakthrough observatory space mission, with a detector composed by a Silicon tracker, a calorimeter, and an anticoincidence system, dedicated to the study of the gamma radiation in the range from 0.3 MeV to 3 GeV. The mission is based on an advanced space-proven detector technology, with unprecedented sensitivity, angular and energy resolution, combined with polarimetric capability. Thanks to its performance in the MeV-GeV domain, substantially improving its predecessors, e-ASTROGAM will open a new window on the non-thermal Universe: in particular, it will make pioneering observations of the most powerful galactic and extragalactic sources and it will determine the origin of key isotopes fundamental for the understanding of supernova explosions and the chemical evolution of our Galaxy. Among the different topics it will address, the mission will also shed light on the processes behind the acceleration of cosmic rays in our Galaxy.

Speaker: Riccardo Rando (University of Padova and INFN)
• 09:15
Contribution of ultra-high energy cosmic rays in extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission 15m Conference Hall

### Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

We discuss ultra-high energy cosmic rays from extragalactic sources and their possible contribution to the diffuse gamma-ray emission. Sources with different cosmic evolution and various particle energy spectra are considered. Cosmic ray spectra at the Earth and the intensity of quanta produced by particles in extragalactic space are obtained. The computational results are compared with the data by Pierre Auger Observatory and Telescope Array and with extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission measured by Fermi LAT. The possibility of existence of cosmic ray sources that make a negligible contribution to the particle flux at the Earth but contribute noticeably to extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission is discussed.

Speaker: Dr. Anna Uryson (Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of sciences)
• 09:30
Carpet-2 limits on the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray flux between 100 TeV and 1 PeV 15m Conference Hall

### Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

Based on data sets measured by Carpet-2 EAS array, 90% C.L. upper limits to the flux of diffuse gamma-rays are determined in an energy range of 100 TeV – 1 PeV. The analysis is performed by selecting air showers with low muon content as expected for gamma-ray induced showers compared to air showers induced by energetic nuclei.
The Carpet-2 EAS array is located in the North Caucasus region near Mount Elbrus at an altitude of 1700 m above see level. The array consists of a ground level detector called the Carpet (200 m^2), six outdoor huts with 9 m^2 of scintillation counters in each, and underground muon detector (MD) with a total area of 175 m^2. Two data sets are used for this analysis. First one was taken in the period from 1999 to 2011, with the net time of data accumulation of 9.2 years. Due to specific trigger conditions this data set is used for obtaining of limits at energy threshold about 1 PeV. The second data set was taken for a net exposure of 1.5 years. These data is used for obtaining of limits on diffuse gamma-rays flux at energy threshold about 100 TeV.

Speaker: Prof. Valery Petkov (INR RAS)
• 09:45
The relevance of fluorescence radiation in Cherenkov telescopes 15m Conference Hall

### Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

It is generally assumed that fluorescence does not play a significant role in the performance of Cherenkov telescopes. This assumption is put to the test of detailed Monte Carlo simulations. To this end we have implemented the production and tracking of fluorescence photons inside the CORSIKA code.

The distributions at ground of both Cherenkov and fluorescence radiation generated by extensive air showers in the 0.1 – 10 PeV range have been analyzed in order to quantify the fluorescence contamination in Cherenkov telescopes (both narrow and wide FoV) and their impact in VHE gamma-ray astronomy.

• 10:00
The first season operation of hybrid imaging /timing Cherenkov array TAIGA 15m Conference Hall

### Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

A prototype of hybrid imaging /timing Cherenkov array TAIGA (Tunka Advanced Instrument for cosmic ray physics and Gamma Astronomy) started operation in October 2017. Now it consists of timing array - TAIGA-HiSCORE, consisting of 45 wide-angle Cherenkov stations distributed over an area of 0.4 km^2 and first Imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope.
The report raises the advantages of a hybrid array for research in the field of VHE gamma-astronomy, new methods of data analysis and will present the preliminary results obtained during the first season of array operation.

Speaker: Prof. Lyubov Sveshnikova (Moscow State University)
• 10:15
Coffee-Break 15m
• 10:30
Constraints on the properties of the turbulent magnetic fields around Geminga using HAWC gamma-ray data 15m Conference Hall

### Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

Observations of extended gamma-ray emission around Galactic cosmic-ray (CR) sources can be used as novel probes of interstellar magnetic fields. Using very-high-energy gamma-ray data from the HAWC Observatory, we place constraints on the properties of the magnetic turbulence within $\approx 25$ pc from Geminga. We inject and propagate individual CR electrons in 3D realizations of turbulent magnetic fields, calculate the resulting gamma-ray emission, and compare with HAWC measurements of this region. We find that HAWC data is compatible with expectations for Kolmogorov or Kraichnan turbulence, and can be well fitted for reasonable coherence lengths and strengths of the turbulence, despite implying a CR diffusion coefficient significantly smaller than those suggested by Galactic CR propagation codes. The best fit is found for a coherence length $L_{\rm c} \approx 1$ pc and a magnetic field strength $B_{\rm rms} \approx 3 \mu$G, and the preferred value for $L_{\rm c}$ increases with $B_{\rm rms}$. Moreover, the apparent lack of strong asymmetries in the observed emission allows us to constrain the coherence length to $L_{\rm c} \leq 5$ pc in this region.

Speaker: Gwenael Giacinti (MPIK Heidelberg)
• 10:45
Intergalactic gamma-ray propagation: basic ideas, processes, and constraints 15m Conference Hall

### Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

Intergalactic gamma-ray propagation studies may, in principle, reveal new physics processes such as gamma-axion like particle oscillation, and allow to measure the extragalactic background light (EBL) and extragalactic magnetic field (EGMF). We review several extragalactic gamma-ray propagation models, namely: the absorption-only model (which includes only the pair production process and adiabatic losses), the electromagnetic cascade model (ECM, which includes also inverse Compton and deflection of secondary electrons in the EGMF), and the hadronic cascade model (HCM, which allows for primary protons or nuclei). The absorption-only model is presently under attack as there are several “anomalies” that could not be accomodated in this framework. The ECM and HCM are not excluded at present. We show that source variability will be the critical test for the case of the ECM, and the HCM could be severely constrained if the EGMF structure is known. Finally, for the case of the ECM and the HCM we predict various quantities that could be measured in future with the Cherenkov Telescope array (CTA) observatory.

Speakers: Timur Dzhatdoev (Moscow State University), Mr. Egor Podlesnyi (Moscow State University)
• 09:00 11:30
HE/UHE muons and neutrinos Main Conference Hall (Belokurikha)

### Main Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

• 09:00
Measurement of the underground flux of atmospheric muons with 24 years of data of the LVD detector 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

The Large Volume Detector (LVD) in the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Italy, at the average depth of 3600 m w.e., has been taking data since June 1992. The experiment, 1 kton of liquid scintillator in a modular geometry made of 840 counters, mainly designed to observe low energy neutrinos from core collapse supernova, can also measure the atmospheric muon flux underground as well the induced neutron production.

In this work we will present the results of the analysis of the entire data set (~5.5 10$^7$ muons in a livetime of 8402 gg) collected during 24 years of continuos operations in the hall A of the Underground Gran Sasso National Laboratory since January 1$^{st}$, 1994 up to December 31$^{st}$, 2017. The present measurement represents an unprecedented collection obtained by a unique experiment in a fixed location. The variation of the flux and its correlation with the the effective temperature in the upper atmosphere will be discussed.

Speaker: Dr. Carlo Francesco Vigorito (University & INFN Torino - Italy)
• 09:15
The search for rare events using Large Volume Detector 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

The Large Volume Detector (LVD) at Gran Sasso Laboratory is neutrino observatory mainly designed to study low energy neutrinos from gravitational stellar collapses. Experimental data for more than 25 years of continuous running of the detector are presented.The stability of long-term LVD operation and results of search for rare events are shown.

Speaker: Mr. Vsevolod Ashikhmin (INR RAS)
• 09:30
Can strangelets solve the muon puzzle ? 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

Indications of a discrepancy between simulations and data on the number of muons in cosmic ray showers exist over a large span of investigations. The excess of muon bundles has been observed by the ALICE detector at LHC in its dedicated cosmic ray run (confirming similar findings from the LEP era at CERN) as well as the excess in the muon number in general has been reported by the Pierre Auger Observatory. Arguing that muonic bundles of highest multiplicity are produced by strangelets, hypothetical stable lumps of strange quark matter infiltrating our universe, we successfully describe data from CERN experiments. Significant evidence for anisotropy of arrival directions of the observed high-multiplicity muonic bundles is found. Estimated directionality suggests their possible extragalactic provenance. To examine this scenario in the shower development as observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory detailed Monte Carlo simulations had to be carried out. We obtain a rough agreement between the simulations and the data for ordinary nuclei without any contribution of strangelets in primary flux of cosmic rays. Even if the strangelets contribute with small amount in primary flux and generate high multiplicity muon bundles, as we advocate recently, their influence on the average muon content in EAS is negligible.

Speaker: Prof. Zbigniew Wlodarczyk (Jan Kochanowski University)
• 09:45
Discovery of the multi-messenger gamma-ray counterpart of the IceCube neutrino signal 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

A signal of high-energy extraterrestrial neutrinos from unknown source(s) was recently discovered by the IceCube experiment. Neutrinos are always produced together with $\gamma$-rays, but the $\gamma$-ray flux from extragalactic sources is suppressed due to attenuation in the intergalactic medium. We report the discovery of the multi-TeV $\gamma$-ray counterpart of the IceCube neutrino signal in the form of high Galactic latitude diffuse emission observed by the Fermi telescope. The detection of the $\gamma$-ray counterpart suggests that a sizable part of the neutrino flux originates from the Milky Way. The diffuse multi-messenger (neutrino and $\gamma$-ray) signal at high Galactic latitudes could originate either from previously unknown nearby cosmic ray "PeVatrons" or from decays of heavy dark matter particles. We discuss both options and their main predictions.

Speakers: Michael Kachelriess (NTNU), Dr. Andrii Neronov (University of Geneva), Dr. Dmitri Semikoz (APC Paris)
• 10:00
Study of muon-induced cascade showers with the Cherenkov water detector 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

Cascade showers induced by muons have been studied in the Cherenkov water detector (CWD) NEVOD with a volume of about 2000 cubic meters and a dense spatial lattice of quasi-spherical measuring modules (QSMs). First, the cascades from near-horizontal muons with tracks determined by means of the coordinate-tracking detector were investigated. The results of measurement of the spatial distribution of Cherenkov radiation from cascade particles in such events are presented. Analysis of these results allowed to develop methods for selecting cascades among the events with a high energy release (EAS cores, muon bundles) and for reconstructing the parameters of these cascades (energy, location and direction of the axis) on the basis of the CWD data. The accuracy of this reconstruction was examined basing on the comparison with Geant4 modeling. The zenith angular distribution of cascades has been measured. This distribution has been compared with calculations for different energy ranges. The energy spectrum of muon-induced cascade showers in the range 100 GeV – 30 TeV at large zenith angles (greater than 55°) according to about 30 thousand hours experimental data has been obtained. Measurement results are compared with the expected spectrum for different slopes of the generation function of parent pions and kaons.

Speaker: Vasiliy Khomyakov (National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Russia)
• 10:15
Coffee-Break 15m
• 10:30
On the energy estimation of high energy muon events in KM3 detectors based on the more exact range fluctuations of high energy muons 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

In the previous paper (Y.Okumura, N.Takahashi and A.Misaki,72(2016)95-108) ,the behaviors of high energy muons ($10^{12}$ eV to $10^{18}$ eV ) and the energies due to cascade showers produced by the muons are exactly simulated over all stochastic processes involved. In the present paper based on the previous one, we extend to simulate three dimensional cascade showers under Appro. B whose origins are either direct pair productions, or bremsstrahlung, or nuclear interactions due to high energy muons as exactly as possible. The lateral distributions for Cherenkov light due to respective cascade showers for given depths are obtained for a given energies of the incident muons. Also, the corresponding arrival time distributions for Cherenkov light are obtained in the similar manner. Finally, we discuss the fluctuation problem as for energy estimation for given incident muons, by using the total Cherenkov light due to charged particles.
The simulation procedures are as follows: every muon with certain energy and the cascade showers produced by the muon concerned are traced by the exact Monte Carlo procedure. Namely, the interaction points and the kind of interactions, either due to direct pair production or bremsstrahlung, or nuclear interaction, and the dissipated energies from the muon concerned, are determined by the probability functions for those elementary processes. The transfered energies produce cascade showers whose incident particles depend on the respective interactions. The Cherenkov light due the electron segments produced by cascade showers are treated in three dimensional manner.

Speaker: Akeo Misaki (Saitama University, Saitama, Japan)
• 10:45
Dependence of the muon bundle energy deposit on the local muon density and zenith angle 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

In several cosmic ray experiments at ultra-high energies (above 100 PeV) the excess of multi-muon events in comparison with calculations was found (so-called “muon puzzle”). To solve the problem of the excess of muons, investigations of the energy characteristics of muon component are required. A possible approach to such investigations is the measurement of the energy deposit of cosmic ray muon bundles. The Cherenkov water detector NEVOD provides the measurements of the energy deposit of the muon bundles, while the coordinate-tracking detector DECOR allows to estimate local densities of muons and directions of their arrival. This information allows to trace possible changes of muon energies with the increase of primary particle energy. Dependences of the muon bundle energy deposit on the zenith angle and local muon density (with primary energy estimations 10-1000 PeV) have been obtained. Results of comparison of the data with simulations performed by means of the CORSIKA code are presented.

Speaker: E.A. Yurina (MEPhI)
• 11:00
Baikal-GVD - Next Generation Neutrino Telescope in Lake Baikal 15m Main Conference Hall

### Main Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

Baikal-GVD is a next generation, kilometer-scale neutrino telescope under construction in Lake Baikal, which will be formed by multi-megaton subarrays – clusters of strings. A first cluster in its baseline configuration has been deployed and operated in 2016. It comprises 288 optical modules (OMs) arranged at eight strings. The second GVD-cluster was deployed and put in operation in 2017. We review the present activity towards the GVD implementation and discuss some selected results obtained with the Baikal-GVD in 2016 – 2017 years.

Speaker: Dr. Vladimir Aynutdinov (INR RAS)
• 11:30 12:30
Closing Main Conference Hall (Belokurikha)

### Main Conference Hall

#### Belokurikha

• 12:30 13:15
Lunch 45m
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